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OKLAHOMA STATUTES AND CODES

Title 12. Civil Procedure

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TITLE 12 CIVIL PROCEDURE §121.Title of chapter. This chapter shall be known as the Code of Civil Procedure of the State of Oklahoma. R.L. 1910, § 4641.§122.Force of common law. The common law, as modified by constitutional and statutory law, judicial decisions and the condition and wants of the people, shall remain in force in aid of the general statutes of Oklahoma; but the rule of the common law, that statutes in derogation thereof, shall be strictly construed, shall not be applicable to any general statute of Oklahoma; but all such statutes shall be liberally construed to promote their object. R.L. 1910, § 4642.§12-3.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-4.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-5.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-6.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-7.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-8.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-9.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-10.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-11.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-12.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-13.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-14.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-15.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-16.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-17.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-18.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-19.Affidavit of consultation with qualified expert – Extension - Exemption. A.1.In any civil action for professional negligence, except as provided in subsection B of this section, the plaintiff shall attach to the petition an affidavit attesting that: a.the plaintiff has consulted and reviewed the facts of the claim with a qualified expert, b.the plaintiff has obtained a written opinion from a qualified expert that clearly identifies the plaintiff and includes the determination of the expert that, based upon a review of the available material including, but not limited to, applicable medical records, facts or other relevant material, a reasonable interpretation of the facts supports a finding that the acts or omissions of the defendant against whom the action is brought constituted professional negligence, and c.on the basis of the review and consultation of the qualified expert, the plaintiff has concluded that the claim is meritorious and based on good cause. 2.If the civil action for professional negligence is filed: a.without an affidavit being attached to the petition, as required in paragraph 1 of this subsection, and b.no extension of time is subsequently granted by the court, pursuant to subsection B of this section, the court shall, upon motion of the defendant, dismiss the action without prejudice to its refiling. 3.The written opinion from the qualified expert shall state the acts or omissions of the defendant or defendants that the expert then believes constituted professional negligence and shall include reasons explaining why the acts or omissions constituted professional negligence.The written opinion from the qualified expert shall not be admissible at trial for any purpose nor shall any inquiry be permitted with regard to the written opinion for any purpose either in discovery or at trial. B.1.The court may, upon application of the plaintiff for good cause shown, grant the plaintiff an extension of time, not exceeding ninety (90) days after the date the petition is filed, except for good cause shown, to file in the action an affidavit attesting that the plaintiff has obtained a written opinion from a qualified expert as described in paragraph 1 of subsection A of this section. 2.If on the expiration of an extension period described in paragraph 1 of this subsection, the plaintiff has failed to file in the action an affidavit as described above, the court shall, upon motion of the defendant, unless good cause is shown for such failure, dismiss the action without prejudice to its refiling.If good cause is shown, the resulting extension shall in no event exceed sixty (60) days.C.1.Upon written request of any defendant in a civil action for professional negligence, the plaintiff shall, within ten (10) business days after receipt of such request, provide the defendant with: a.a copy of the written opinion of a qualified expert mentioned in an affidavit filed pursuant to subsection A or B of this section, and b.an authorization from the plaintiff in a form that complies with applicable state and federal laws, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, for the release of any and all medical records related to the plaintiff for a period commencing five (5) years prior to the incident that is at issue in the civil action for professional negligence. 2.If the plaintiff fails to comply with paragraph 1 of this subsection, the court shall, upon motion of the defendant, unless good cause is shown for such failure, dismiss the action without prejudice to its refiling. D.A plaintiff in a civil action for professional negligence may claim an exemption to the provisions of this section based on indigency pursuant to the qualification rules established as set forth in Section 4 of this act.Added by Laws 2009, c. 228, § 2, eff. Nov. 1, 2009.§12-21.Repealed by Laws 1980, c. 180, § 6, emerg. eff. May 13, 1980. §1222.Books to be kept by district clerk. The clerk of the district court shall keep an appearance docket, a trial docket, a journal and such other records as may be ordered by the court or required by law. R.L. 1910, § 5322.Amended by Laws 1988, c. 102, § 2, eff. Nov. 1, 1988; Laws 1990, c. 251, § 18, eff. Jan. 1, 1991; Laws 1991, c. 251, § 1, eff. June 1, 1991; Laws 1993, c. 351, § 7, eff. Oct. 1, 1993.§1223.Appearance docket. On the appearance docket he shall enter all actions in the order in which they are brought, the date of the summons, the time of the return thereof by the officer, and his return thereon, the time of filing the petition, and all subsequent pleadings and papers, and an abstract of all judgments and orders of the court.An abstract shall contain a very brief description of the order or judgment rendered.It must not be encumbered with a detailed recital of the terms.Proceedings other than those which culminated in an order or judgment shall not be abstracted into the appearance docket.Either the judge or the clerk may prepare an appearance docket entry in the form of a minute, or the content of the entry may be dictated either by the judge or the clerk into an electronic recording device.The clerk shall transcribe onto the appearance docket all minute entries made and all the electronicallyrecorded abstracts. R.L. 1910, § 5323.Amended by Laws 1972, c. 119, § 1, emerg. eff. March 31, 1972.§12-24.Journal record - Instruments to be entered - Microfilm. Upon the journal record required to be kept by the clerk of the district court in civil cases exclusive of the small claims docket and juvenile proceedings docket shall be entered copies of the following instruments on file: 1.All items of process by which the court acquired jurisdiction of the person of each defendant in the case; and 2.All instruments filed in the case that bear the signature of the judge and specify clearly the relief granted or order made. The journal may be kept entirely in microfilm, optical disks, or other appropriate medium.Existing journal records in the custody of the court clerk may be destroyed after being stored on at least two microfilm records, optical disks, or other appropriate medium, one of which shall be placed by the court clerk with the Archives and Records Division of the Oklahoma Department of Libraries, or in a bank or other appropriate local depository, and one shall be available for public use in the court clerk’s office.In case of functional failure of the record in the court clerk’s office the copy in storage shall be made available to anyone requesting access to it.The cost of the storage medium and equipment and for viewing and copying shall be paid out of the court fund upon approval by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.Copies of the journal record reproduced from microfilm, optical disk, and other media and copies of the original instruments that are part of the journal records, when certified by the court clerk having the custody of the original, may be received in evidence with the same effect as the original would have had and without further identification by the party desiring to offer them. R.L.1910, § 5324.Amended by Laws 1971, c. 245, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1971; Laws 1972, c. 146, § 1, emerg. eff. April 7, 1972; Laws 2004, c. 447, § 2, emerg. eff. June 4, 2004.§1224.1.Disposal of records. Any clerk, upon microfilming the record as above set forth, is directed to destroy the record, provided that such record shall first be offered to the county and State Historical Society. Added by Laws 1971, c. 245, § 2, eff. Oct. 1, 1971.§12-25.Repealed by Laws 1990, c. 251, § 20, eff. Jan. 1, 1991. §12-25.1.Repealed by Laws 1993, c. 351, § 29, eff. Oct. 1, 1993. §12-26.Repealed by Laws 1988, c. 102, § 3, eff. Nov. 1, 1988. §1227.Clerk may collect judgment and costs. Where there is no execution outstanding, the clerk of the court in which the judgment was rendered may receive the amount of the judgment and costs, and receipt therefor, with the same effect as if the same had been paid to the sheriff on an execution; and the clerk shall be liable to be amerced in the same manner and amount as a sheriff for refusing to pay the same to the party entitled thereto, when requested, and shall also be liable on his official bond. R.L. 1910, § 5327.§1228.Clerks to issue writs and ordersPreparation. All writs and orders for provisional remedies, and process of every kind shall be prepared by the party or his attorney who is seeking the issuance of such writ, order, or process and shall be issued by the clerks of the several courts. R.L. 1910, § 5328.Amended by Laws 1969, c. 210, § 1.§12-29.Clerks to file and preserve papers - Refusal to file sham legal process. A.It is the duty of the clerk of each of the courts to file together and carefully preserve in his office, all papers delivered to him for that purpose, except as provided in subsection B of this section, in every action or special proceeding. B.The court clerk may refuse to file any document presented for filing if the clerk believes that the document constitutes sham legal process, as defined by Section 1533 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes. C.1.Any person aggrieved by the refusal of a court clerk to file any document provided for in subsection A of this section may petition the district court for a writ of mandamus to compel the clerk to file the tendered document. 2.At the time of refusal, the person aggrieved shall file a notice of refusal with the court clerk for the purpose of tolling any applicable statute of limitations in the event the person prevails in any action so commenced, if the person wishes for the statute of limitations to be tolled.The refusal notice shall be submitted on a form provided by the court clerk, but must be filled out by the aggrieved party.A copy of the instrument that the clerk refused to file must be attached to the notice of refusal.The court clerk shall stamp the date of refusal on the notice of refusal. The refusal notice shall be in the following form: STATE OF OKLAHOMA __________ COUNTY NOTICE OF REFUSAL The Office of Court Clerk of __________ County, Oklahoma, has on __________ (date) refused to file a document designated ___________ (title of document or brief description of document).A copy of the refused document must be attached to this notice of refusal or the clerk cannot accept it for filing. Signed:_____________Signed: ________________________ Court ClerkAggrieved party or attorney for aggrieved party _______County, OklahomaAddress:__________________ __________________________ 3.The action for mandamus must be filed with the district court within twenty (20) days after the notice of refusal is filed with the county clerk.If the writ of mandamus is granted, the court clerk shall refund the fee for filing the action.Notice of the pendency of a mandamus action filed pursuant to this section shall be filed in accordance with Section 2004.2 of this title.If the court determines that the tendered document is not sham legal process, the court shall order the clerk to file the tendered paper or papers.For any instrument which the court orders to be filed pursuant to this subsection, the date of filing shall be retroactive to the date the notice of refusal was filed. D.If a court clerk improperly files or refuses to file a document provided for in subsection B of this section, the clerk shall be immune from liability for such action in any civil suit. E.A clerk shall post a sign, in letters at least one (1) inch in height, that is clearly visible to the general public in or near the clerk's office stating that it is a felony to intentionally or knowingly file or attempt to file sham legal process with the clerk.Failure of the clerk to post such a sign shall not create a defense to any criminal or civil action based on sham legal process. R.L. 1910, § 5329.Amended by Laws 1997, c. 405, § 2, emerg. eff. June 13, 1997.§12-30.Each case to be kept separate - Correction of case number or other identifying data. The papers in each case shall be kept in a separate file marked with the title and number of the case.If the court clerk discovers a pleading or other paper which has been filed or submitted for filing that bears an incorrect case number or other incorrect identifying data, the court clerk shall correct the case number or other incorrect identifying data and enter a notation on the docket sheet of both cases recording the correction.The corrected pleading or other paper shall be placed in the court file bearing the corrected case number. R.L. 1910, § 5330.Amended by Laws 1972, c. 119, § 2, emerg. eff. March 31, 1972; Laws 1997, c. 239, § 3, eff. July 1, 1997.§1231.Endorsements. He shall endorse upon every paper filed with him, the day of filing it; and upon every order for a provisional remedy, and upon every undertaking given under the same, the day of its return to his office. R.L. 1910, § 5331.§1231.1.Removal of records or files from office of court clerk. Only officers of the court or persons, firms or corporations holding a certificate of authority pursuant to the Oklahoma Abstractors Law, Section 227.10 et seq. of Title 74 of the Oklahoma Statutes and other authorized court personnel may remove records or case files from the office of the court clerk for a period not to exceed twentyfour (24) hours.Rules for the removal of records or case files shall be promulgated by the district court having jurisdiction over the county in which such records or case files are situated. Added by Laws 1986, c. 214, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 1986.§1232.Entry on return of summons. He shall, upon the return of every summons, enter upon the appearance docket whether or not service has been made; and, if the summons has been served, the name of the defendant or defendants summoned and the day and manner of the service upon each one.The entry shall be evidence in case of the loss of the summons. R.L. 1910, § 5332.Amended by Laws 1953, p. 47, § 1.§1232.1.Material for record. The record shall be made up from the petition, the process, return, the pleadings subsequent thereto, reports, verdicts, orders, judgments, and all material acts and proceedings of the court; but if the items of an account, or the copies of papers attached to the pleadings, be voluminous, the court may order the record to be made by abbreviating the same, or inserting a pertinent description thereof, or by omitting them entirely.Evidence must not be recorded. R.L. 1910, § 5146.Renumbered from § 704 of this title by Laws 1972, c. 119, § 5, emerg. eff. March 3l, 1972.§12-32.2.Repealed by Laws 1990, c. 251, § 20, eff. Jan. 1, 1991. §12-32.3.Repealed by Laws 1993, c. 351, § 29, eff. Oct. 1, 1993. §1233.Clerk to keep court records, books and papersStatistical and other information for Supreme Court, President Pro Tempore of Senate and Speaker of House. He shall keep the records and books and papers appertaining to the court and record its proceedings.He is directed to furnish without cost to the Supreme Court of Oklahoma and to the President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives such statistical and other information as the court or Legislature may require, including, but without being limited to, the number and classification of cases: 1.Filed with the court; 2.Disposed of by the court, and the manner of such disposition; and 3.The number of cases pending before the court, at each term of the court. R.L. 1910, § 5333.Amended by Laws 1951, p. 23, § 1; Laws 1981, c. 272, § 2, eff. July 1, 1981.§1234.Applicable to what courts. The provisions of this article shall, as far as they are applicable, apply to the clerk of all courts of record. R.L. 1910, § 5334.§1235.Powers and duties of clerksStatistical and other information for Supreme Court, President Pro Tempore of Senate and Speaker of House. The clerks of each of the courts shall exercise the powers and perform the duties imposed upon them by the statutes of this state and by the common law.The clerks of each of the courts of record shall furnish without cost to the Supreme Court of Oklahoma and to the President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives such statistical and other information as the court or Legislature may require, including, but without being limited to, the number and classification of cases: 1.Filed with the court; 2.Disposed of by the court, and the manner of such disposition; and 3.The number of cases pending before the court, at each term of the court. R.L. 1910, § 5335.Amended by Laws 1951, p. 23, § 2; Laws 1981, c. 272, § 3, eff. July 1, 1981.§1235.1.Court clerk may process passportsElectionPassport fees. A.The duties of the court clerk may include processing of passports as permitted and prescribed by federal law and regulation if the court clerk files a written election with the Administrative Office of the Courts to process passports.Upon the filing of the election to process passports as an official duty and service, the court clerk shall execute all passport applications presented. B.Amounts collected pursuant to subsection A of this section shall be retained by the court clerk and deposited in the Court Clerk's Revolving Fund pursuant to the provisions of Section 220 of Title 19 of the Oklahoma Statutes. Added by Laws 1983, c. 127, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 1983.Amended by Laws 1997, c. 400, § 2, eff. July 1, 1997; Laws 1998, c. 310, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 1998.§12-36.Repealed by Laws 1974, c. 153, § 17-114, operative Jan. 1, 1975. §12-37.Repealed by Laws 1979, c. 221, § 18, emerg. eff. May 1, 1979. §12-38.Seal of clerk of district court. A.Every clerk of a district court shall keep a seal, to be furnished by the court, which shall contain the name of the county and the words "Oklahoma" and "District Court".The seal may be either metallic or nonmetallic. B.Every instrument, document, record, paper or other thing required to be certified by the court or by the court clerk shall contain the seal of the court clerk.Where electronic transmission of a document is allowed, the document shall be deemed certified if it contains a digital signature or equivalent signing technology, as approved and supplied by the Supreme Court of Oklahoma.The Supreme Court shall be the guardian of digital signatures or equivalent signing technology and shall govern all rules as to validity and authenticity. C.Any person who uses the seal of the court clerk with the intent to deceive or mislead any person as to the authenticity of the seal, a certification required by subsection B of this section, or the thing to which the seal is applied shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. D.Electronic transmittals of documents shall be allowed if safeguards are in place to protect against unauthorized users and if agents intended to receive the transmittals have agreed to electronic processing of the documents. Added by Laws 1991, c. 114, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1991.Amended by Laws 2004, c. 94, § 1, eff. July 1, 2004.§12-39.Court clerk – Prohibition of posting documents containing certain charges on court-controlled web site. A.Beginning July 1, 2005, no court clerk shall post on a court-controlled web site any document that contains a charge in Sections 886 and 888 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes, if the offense involved the detestable and abominable crime against nature with mankind, or a charge in Section 843.5 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes, or Section 644, 741, 843.1, 885, 1021, 1021.2, 1021.3, 1040.13a, 1081, 1085, 1087, 1088, Sections 1111 through 1116 or Section 1123 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes. B.Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit access to any original document as provided by law. Added by Laws 2005, c. 387, § 1, eff. July 1, 2005.Amended by Laws 2009, c. 234, § 110, emerg. eff. May 21, 2009.§1251.Style of process. The style of all process shall be "The State of Oklahoma."It shall be under the seal of the court from whence the same shall issue, shall be signed by the clerk, and dated the day it is issued. R.L. 1910, § 5319.§1252.Appointment of substitute for sheriff. The court or judge, or any clerk in the absence of the judge from the county, for good cause, may appoint a person to serve a particular process or order, who shall have the same power to execute it which the sheriff has.The person may be appointed on the application of the party obtaining the process or order, and the return must be verified by affidavit.He shall be entitled to the same fees allowed to the sheriff for similar services. R.L. 1910, § 5320.§1253.Sheriff to endorse time of receipt on process. The sheriff shall endorse upon every summons, order of arrest, or for the delivery of property or of attachment or injunction, the day and hour it was received by him. R.L. 1910, § 5336.§1254.Must execute and return processExecution by county clerk when sheriff disqualified. He shall execute every summons, order or other process, and return the same as required by law; and if he fail to do so, unless he make it appear to the satisfaction of the court that he was prevented by inevitable accident from so doing, he shall be amerced by the court in a sum not exceeding One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00), upon motion and ten (10) days' notice, and shall be liable to the action of any person aggrieved by such failure.Provided that whenever any party, his agent or attorney, shall make and file with the clerk of the proper court an affidavit, stating that he believes that the sheriff of said county will not, by reason of either partiality, prejudice, consanguinity or interest, faithfully perform his duties in any suit commenced in said court, the clerk shall direct the original, or other process, in such suit to the county clerk who shall execute the same in like manner as the sheriff might or ought to have done, and who shall be subject to the same penalties as the sheriff if he fail to do so, unless he make it appear that he was prevented by inevitable accident from so doing, and the county clerk shall perform all of the other duties of the sheriff when the sheriff shall be a party to the case, or is disqualified. R.L. 1910, § 5337.Amended by Laws 1953, p. 47, § 1.§1255.Sheriff may adjourn court, when. If the judge of a court fail to attend at the time and place appointed for holding his court, the sheriff shall have power to adjourn the court, from day to day, until the regular or assigned judge attend or a judge pro tempore be selected; but if the judge be not present in his court, nor a judge be assigned or a judge pro tempore be selected, within two (2) days after the first day of the term, then the court shall stand adjourned for the term.The sheriff shall exercise the powers and duties conferred and imposed upon him by the statutes of this state and by the common law. R.L. 1910, § 5338.§1261.Justification of surety. A ministerial officer whose duty it is to take security in any undertaking provided for by this Code or by other statutes shall require the person offered as surety to make an affidavit of his qualifications, which affidavit may be made before such officer, and shall be endorsed upon or attached to the undertaking.The taking of such an affidavit shall not exempt the officer from any liability to which he might otherwise be subject for taking insufficient security. R.L. 1910, § 5342.§1262.Qualifications of surety. The surety in every undertaking provided for by this Code or other statutes unless a surety company, must be a resident of this state and worth double the sum to be secured, over and above all exemptions, debts and liabilities.Where there are two or more sureties in the same undertaking they must in the aggregate have the qualifications prescribed in this section. R.L. 1910, § 5343.§1263.Real estate mortgage as bond. In every instance in this state where bond, indemnity or guaranty is required, a first mortgage upon improved real estate within this state shall be accepted:Provided, that the amount of such bond, guaranty or indemnity shall not exceed fifty percent (50%) of the reasonable valuation of such improved real estate, exclusive of all buildings thereon; Provided, further, that where the amount of such bond, guaranty or indemnity shall exceed fifty percent (50%) of the reasonable valuation of such improved real estate, exclusive of all buildings, then such first mortgage shall be accepted to the extent of such fifty percent (50%) valuation. R.L. 1910, § 5344.§1264.Valuation of real estate. The officer, whose duty it is to accept and approve such bond, guaranty or indemnity shall require the affidavits of two freeholders versed in land values in the community where such real estate is located to the value of such real estate.Said officer shall have the authority to administer the oaths and take said affidavits. R.L. 1910, § 5345.§1265.False valuationPenalty. Any person willfully making a false affidavit as to the value of any such real estate shall be guilty of perjury and punished accordingly.Any officer administering or accepting such affidavit knowing it to be false, shall be guilty of the felony of subornation of perjury and punished accordingly. R.L. 1910, § 5346.Amended by Laws 1997, c. 133, § 130, eff. July 1, 1999.NOTE:Laws 1998, 1st Ex.Sess., c. 2, § 23 amended the effective date of Laws 1997, c. 133, § 130 from July 1, 1998, to July 1, 1999.§12-66.State as a party – Bond not required – Automatic stay - Payment of costs. A.Whenever an action is filed in any of the courts of this state where the State of Oklahoma or any of its departments or agencies, as defined in Section 152 of Title 51 of the Oklahoma Statutes, is a party, no bonds or other obligation of security shall be required from the state or from any party acting under the direction of the state, either to prosecute, answer, or appeal the action.The execution of a judgment or final order of any judicial tribunal against the state or any of its departments or agencies is automatically stayed without the execution of a supersedeas bond until any appeal of such judgment or final order has finally been determined. In case of an adverse decision, such costs as by law are taxable against the state, or against the party acting by its direction, shall be paid out of the funds of the department under whose direction the proceedings were instituted or defended. B.Costs shall be paid to the court fund of the district court in which an action is filed from the first funds collected in satisfaction of any judgment obtained by this state or any party acting under the direction of this state, except when the funds are collected pursuant to a child support order, judgment, or pursuant to any civil forfeiture action.No action filed by this state or by any party acting under the direction of this state shall be dismissed with unpaid costs of the action without the prior notification of the district court clerk of the county in which the action was filed. Added by Laws 1923, c. 203, p. 354, § 1, emerg. eff. March 31, 1923.Amended by Laws 1992, c. 357, § 1, eff. July 1, 1992; Laws 1999, c. 359, § 2, eff. Nov. 1, 1999; Laws 2002, c. 468, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 2002; Laws 2007, c. 248, § 1, emerg. eff. June 4, 2007.§12-67.Repealed by Laws 1961, p. 59, § 1. §1268.Appearance bondApplication of penaltyRight to enforce. If a bench warrant or command to enforce a court order by body attachment is issued in a case for divorce, legal separation, annulment or alimony, or in any civil proceeding in which a judgment debtor is summoned to answer as to assets, and the person arrested, pursuant to the authority of such process, makes a bond for his appearance at the time of trial or other proceeding in the case, the bond made shall be disbursed by the court clerk upon order of the court to the party in the suit who has procured the bench warrant or command for body attachment rather than to the State of Oklahoma.The penalty on the bond, or any part thereof, shall, when recovered, first be applied to discharge the obligation adjudicated in the case in which the bond was posted.The party who is the obligee on such bond shall have the right to enforce its penalty to the same extent and in the same manner as the state may enforce the penalty on a forfeited bail bond. Added by Laws 1976, c. 265, § 1, operative Oct. 1, 1976.Amended by Laws 1977, c. 26, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1977.Renumbered from § 1276.1 of this title by Laws 1977, c. 26, § 2, eff. Oct. 1, 1977.§1271.Deputy may perform official duties. Any duty enjoined by this Code upon a ministerial officer, and any act permitted to be done by him, may be performed by his lawful deputy. R.L. 1910, § 5339.§1272.Affirmation. Whenever an oath is required by this Code, the affirmation of a person, conscientiously scrupulous of taking an oath shall have the same effect. R.L. 1910, § 5340.§12-73.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §1274.Supreme Court rules. The Justices of the Supreme Court shall meet every two (2) years during the month of June at the capitol of the state and revise their general rules, and make such amendments thereto as may be required to carry into effect the provisions of this Code, and shall make such further rules consistent therewith as they may deem proper.The rules so made shall apply to the Supreme Court, the district courts, the superior courts, the county courts and all other courts of record. R.L. 1910, § 5347.§1275.Publications in "patent insides". All publications and notices required by law to be published in newspapers in this state if published in newspapers having one side of the paper printed away from the office of publication, known as patent outsides or insides, shall have the same force and effect as though the same were published in newspapers printed wholly and published in the county where such publication shall be made, if one side of the paper is printed in said county where said notices are required to be published. R.L. 1910, § 5348.§1276.Action on official bond. When an officer, executor or administrator within this state, by misconduct or neglect of duty, forfeits his bond or renders his sureties liable, any person injured thereby, or who is, by law, entitled to the benefit of the security, may bring an action thereon in his own name, against the officer, executor or administrator and his sureties, to recover the amount to which he may be entitled by reason of the delinquency.The action may be instituted and proceeded in on a certified copy of the bond, which copy shall be furnished by the person holding the original thereof. R.L. 1910, § 5349.§1277.May be several actions on same security. A judgment in favor of a party for one delinquency does not preclude the same or another party from an action on the same security for another delinquency. R.L. 1910, § 5350.§1278.Immaterial errors to be disregarded. The court, in every stage of action, must disregard any error or defect in the pleadings or proceedings which does not affect the substantial rights of the adverse party; and no judgment shall be reversed or affected by reason of such error or defect. R.L. 1910, § 4791.§12-79.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-80.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §1281.Payments into court for infant or incompetent personDisposition. Where any amount of money not exceeding Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) shall be deposited and paid into any court of record of this state by virtue of any judgment, order, settlement, distribution or decree for the use and benefit of, and to the credit of, any minor or incompetent person having no legal guardian of his estate within this state, and no person shall within ninety (90) days thereafter become the legal and qualified guardian of the estate of such minor or incompetent person, if it appears to the court that such money is needed for the support of such minor or incompetent person or that it is otherwise for the best interest of such minor or incompetent person, the court may, in its discretion, order payment of such funds to be made to any proper and suitable person as trustee for such minor or incompetent person, with bond, as the court may direct, to be expended for the support, use, and benefit of such minor or incompetent person.Such order may be made by the court in the original cause in which the funds are credited upon the application of any interested person; and the court may direct the clerk of the court to make payment of the same to be made in installments or in one lump sum as may seem for the best interests of such minor or incompetent person. Added by Laws 1931, p. 2, § 1.Amended by Laws 1951, p. 24, § 1.§12-82.Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. §12-83.Conserving monies obtained for or on behalf of persons under eighteen years of age in court proceedings. A.Monies recovered in any court proceeding by a next friend or guardian ad litem for or on behalf of a person who is less than eighteen (18) years of age in excess of One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00) over sums sufficient for paying costs and expenses including medical bills and attorney's fees shall be deposited, by order of the court, in one or more federally insured banking, credit union or savings and loan institutions, or invested by a bank or trust company having trust powers under federal or state law, approved by the court; provided, that the court may approve a structured settlement, by the terms of which the proceeds of a settlement may be invested by the plaintiff or the defendant in an annuity to be paid to or for the benefit of the minor by an insurance company licensed in this state. B.Until the person becomes eighteen (18) years of age, withdrawals of monies from the account or accounts shall be solely pursuant to order of the court made in the case in which recovery was had. C.When an application for the order is made by a person who is not represented by an attorney, the judge of the court shall prepare the order. D.This section shall not apply if a legal guardian has been appointed for the minor prior to any award of monies pursuant to subsection A of this section.If a legal guardian is appointed after any award of monies pursuant to subsection A of this section, the legal guardian may petition the district court in the county where the federally insured funds are held for an order directing the bank, credit union or savings and loan to transfer the funds to the legal guardian.The district court may make the granting of the request to transfer funds subject to reasonable safeguards. Added by Laws 1971, c. 98, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1971.Amended by Laws 1972, c. 197, § 1, emerg. eff. April 7, 1972; Laws 1984, c. 53, § 1, emerg. eff. March 28, 1984; Laws 1993, c. 98, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1993; Laws 1996, c. 293, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 1996; Laws 2003, c. 140, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 2003.§12-84.Repealed by Laws 1993, c. 98, § 2, eff. Sept. 1, 1993. §12-85.Repealed by Laws 1982, c. 290, § 11. §1291.Actions barred not revived. Any right of action, which shall have been barred by any statute heretofore in force, shall not be deemed to be revived by the provisions of this article, nor shall the prior statutes of limitation be extended as to any cause of action which has accrued prior to the time this article shall take effect. R.L. 1910, § 4653.§1292.Limitations applicable. Civil actions can only be commenced within the periods prescribed in this article, after the cause of action shall have accrued; but where, in special cases, a different limitation is prescribed by statute, the action shall be governed by such limitation. R.L. 1910, § 4654.§1293.Limitation of real actions. Actions for the recovery of real property, or for the determination of any adverse right or interest therein, can only be brought within the periods hereinafter prescribed, after the cause of action shall have accrued, and at no other time thereafter: (1) An action for the recovery of real property sold on execution, or for the recovery of real estate partitioned by judgment in kind, or sold, or conveyed pursuant to partition proceedings, or other judicial sale, or an action for the recovery of real estate distributed under decree of district court in administration or probate proceedings, when brought by or on behalf of the execution debtor or former owner, or his or their heirs, or any person claiming under him or them by title acquired after the date of the judgment or by any person claiming to be an heir or devisee of the decedent in whose estate such decree was rendered, or claiming under, as successor in interest, any such heir or devisee, within five (5) years after the date of the recording of the deed made in pursuance of the sale or proceeding, or within five (5) years after the date of the entry of the final judgment of partition in kind where no sale is had in the partition proceedings; or within five (5) years after the recording of the decree of distribution rendered by the district court in an administration or probate proceeding; provided, however, that where any such action pertains to real estate distributed under decree of district court in administration or probate proceedings and would at the passage of this act be barred by the terms hereof, such action may be brought within one (1) year after the passage of this act; this proviso shall not be construed to revive any action barred by paragraph 4 of this section. (2) An action for the recovery of real property sold by executors, administrators, or guardians, upon an order or judgment of a court directing such sale, brought by the heirs or devisees of the deceased person, or the ward of his guardian, or any person claiming under any or either of them, by the title acquired after the date of judgment or order, within five (5) years after the date of recording of the deed made in pursuance of the sale. (3) An action for the recovery of real property sold for taxes, within five (5) years after the date of the recording of the tax deed, except where lands exempt from taxation by reason of any Act of the Congress of the United States of America have been sold for taxes, in which case there shall be no limitation; provided, nothing herein shall be construed as reviving any cause of action for recovery of real property heretofore barred nor as divesting any interest acquired by adverse possession prior to the effective date hereof. (4) An action for the recovery of real property not hereinbefore provided for, within fifteen (15) years. (5) An action for the forcible entry and detention or forcible detention only of real property, within two (2) years. (6) Numbered paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 shall be fully operative regardless of whether the deed or judgment or the precedent action or proceeding upon which such deed or judgment is based is void or voidable in whole or in part, for any reason, jurisdictional or otherwise; provided that this paragraph shall not be applied so as to bar causes of action which have heretofore accrued, until the expiration of one (1) year from and after its effective date. R.L. 1910, § 4655.Amended by Laws 1945, p. 37, § 1; Laws 1949, p. 95, § 1; Laws 1961, p. 59, § 1, emerg. eff. July 26, 1961.§1294.Persons under disabilityTime to sue to recover realty. Any person entitled to bring an action for the recovery of real property, who may be under any legal disability when the cause of action accrues, may bring his action within two (2) years after the disability is removed. R.L. 1910, § 4656.§12-95.Limitation of other actions. A.Civil actions other than for the recovery of real property can only be brought within the following periods, after the cause of action shall have accrued, and not afterwards: 1.Within five (5) years:An action upon any contract, agreement, or promise in writing; 2.Within three (3) years:An action upon a contract express or implied not in writing; an action upon a liability created by statute other than a forfeiture or penalty; and an action on a foreign judgment; 3.Within two (2) years:An action for trespass upon real property; an action for taking, detaining, or injuring personal property, including actions for the specific recovery of personal property; an action for injury to the rights of another, not arising on contract, and not hereinafter enumerated; an action for relief on the ground of fraud - the cause of action in such case shall not be deemed to have accrued until the discovery of the fraud; 4.Within one (1) year:An action for libel, slander, assault, battery, malicious prosecution, or false imprisonment; an action upon a statute for penalty or forfeiture, except where the statute imposing it prescribes a different limitation; 5.An action upon the official bond or undertaking of an executor, administrator, guardian, sheriff, or any other officer, or upon the bond or undertaking given in attachment, injunction, arrest, or in any case whatever required by the statute, can only be brought within five (5) years after the cause of action shall have accrued; 6.An action based on intentional conduct brought by any person for recovery of damages for injury suffered as a result of childhood sexual abuse incidents or exploitation as defined by Section 1-1-105 of Title 10A of the Oklahoma Statutes or incest can only be brought within the latter of the following periods: a.within two (2) years of the act alleged to have caused the injury or condition, or b.within two (2) years of the time the victim discovered or reasonably should have discovered that the injury or condition was caused by the act or that the act caused the injury for which the claim is brought. Provided, however, that the time limit for commencement of an action pursuant to this paragraph is tolled for a child until the child reaches the age of eighteen (18) years or until five (5) years after the perpetrator is released from the custody of a state, federal or local correctional facility or jail, whichever is later.No action may be brought against the alleged perpetrator or the estate of the alleged perpetrator after the death of such alleged perpetrator, unless the perpetrator was convicted of a crime of sexual abuse involving the claimant.An action pursuant to this paragraph must be based upon objective verifiable evidence in order for the victim to recover damages for injuries suffered by reason of such sexual abuse, exploitation, or incest.The evidence should include both proof that the victim had psychologically repressed the memory of the facts upon which the claim was predicated and that there was corroborating evidence that the sexual abuse, exploitation, or incest actually occurred.The victim need not establish which act in a series of continuing sexual abuse incidents, exploitation incidents, or incest caused the injury complained of, but may compute the date of discovery from the date of discovery of the last act by the same perpetrator which is part of a common scheme or plan of sexual abuse, exploitation, or incest.Provided further, any action based on intentional conduct specified in paragraph 7 of this section must be commenced within twenty (20) years of the victim reaching the age of eighteen (18); 7.An action based on intentional conduct brought by any person for recovery of damages for injury suffered as a result of criminal actions, as defined by the Oklahoma Statutes, may be brought against any person incarcerated or under the supervision of a state, federal or local correctional facility on or after November 1, 2003: a.at any time during the incarceration of the offender for the offense on which the action is based, or b.within five (5) years after the perpetrator is released from the custody of a state, federal or local correctional facility, if the defendant was serving time for the offense on which the action is based; 8.An action to establish paternity and to enforce support obligations can be brought any time before the child reaches the age of eighteen (18); 9.An action to establish paternity can be brought by a child in accordance with Section 7700-606 of Title 10 of the Oklahoma Statutes; 10.Court-ordered child support is owed until it is paid in full and it is not subject to a statute of limitations; 11.All actions filed by an inmate or by a person based upon facts that occurred while the person was an inmate in the custody of one of the following: a.the State of Oklahoma, b.a contractor of the State of Oklahoma, or c.a political subdivision of the State of Oklahoma, to include, but not be limited to, the revocation of earned credits and claims for injury to the rights of another, shall be commenced within one (1) year after the cause of action shall have accrued; and 12.An action for relief, not hereinbefore provided for, can only be brought within five (5) years after the cause of action shall have accrued. B.Collection of debts owed by inmates who have received damage awards pursuant to Section 566.1 of Title 57 of the Oklahoma Statutes shall be governed by the time limitations imposed by that section. R.L.1910, § 4657.Amended by Laws 1953, p. 48, § 1, emerg. eff. June 1, 1953; Laws 1961, p. 60, § 1; Laws 1971, c. 316, § 3, emerg. eff. June 24, 1971; Laws 1992, c. 344, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1992; Laws 1994, c. 356, § 11, eff. Sept. 1, 1994; Laws 1996, c. 233, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 1996; Laws 2002, c. 402, § 1, eff. July 1, 2002; Laws 2004, c. 168, § 1, emerg. eff. April 27, 2004; Laws 2005, c. 159, § 1, emerg. eff. May 10, 2005; Laws 2008, c. 99, § 4, eff. Nov. 1, 2008; Laws 2009, c. 234, § 111, emerg. eff. May 21, 2009. NOTE:Laws 2004, c. 168, § 18, providing for an effective date of Nov. 1, 2004, was repealed by Laws 2004, c. 382, § 4, emerg. eff. June 3, 2004.§1296.Persons under disability in actions other than to recover realtyExceptionsPersonal injury to minor arising from medical malpractice. If a person entitled to bring an action other than for the recovery of real property, except for a penalty or forfeiture, be, at the time the cause of action accrued, under any legal disability, every such person shall be entitled to bring such action within one (1) year after such disability shall be removed, except that, after the effective date of this section, an action for personal injury to a minor under the age of twelve (12) arising from medical malpractice must be brought by the minor's parent or guardian within seven (7) years of infliction of the injury, provided a minor twelve (12) years of age and older must bring such action within one (1) year after attaining majority, but in no event less than two (2) years from the date of infliction of the injury, and an action for personal injury arising from medical malpractice to a person adjudged incompetent must be brought by the incompetent person's guardian within seven (7) years of infliction of the injury, provided an incompetent who has been adjudged competent must bring such action within one (1) year after the adjudication of such competency, but i
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    TITLE 12 

    CIVIL PROCEDURE 

    §121. Title of chapter. 

    This chapter shall be known as the Code of Civil Procedure of the State of Oklahoma. 

    R.L. 1910, § 4641. 

     

    §122. Force of common law. 

    The common law, as modified by constitutional and statutory law, judicial decisions and the condition and wants of the people, shall remain in force in aid of the general statutes of Oklahoma; but the rule of the common law, that statutes in derogation thereof, shall be strictly construed, shall not be applicable to any general statute of Oklahoma; but all such statutes shall be liberally construed to promote their object. 

    R.L. 1910, § 4642. 

     

    §12-3. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-4. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-5. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-6. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-7. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-8. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-9. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-10. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-11. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-12. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-13. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-14. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-15. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-16. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-17. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-18. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-19. Affidavit of consultation with qualified expert – Extension - Exemption. 

    A. 1. In any civil action for professional negligence, except as provided in subsection B of this section, the plaintiff shall attach to the petition an affidavit attesting that: 

    a.  the plaintiff has consulted and reviewed the facts of the claim with a qualified expert, 

    b.  the plaintiff has obtained a written opinion from a qualified expert that clearly identifies the plaintiff and includes the determination of the expert that, based upon a review of the available material including, but not limited to, applicable medical records, facts or other relevant material, a reasonable interpretation of the facts supports a finding that the acts or omissions of the defendant against whom the action is brought constituted professional negligence, and 

    c.  on the basis of the review and consultation of the qualified expert, the plaintiff has concluded that the claim is meritorious and based on good cause. 

    2. If the civil action for professional negligence is filed: 

    a.  without an affidavit being attached to the petition, as required in paragraph 1 of this subsection, and 

    b.  no extension of time is subsequently granted by the court, pursuant to subsection B of this section, 

    the court shall, upon motion of the defendant, dismiss the action without prejudice to its refiling. 

    3. The written opinion from the qualified expert shall state the acts or omissions of the defendant or defendants that the expert then believes constituted professional negligence and shall include reasons explaining why the acts or omissions constituted professional negligence. The written opinion from the qualified expert shall not be admissible at trial for any purpose nor shall any inquiry be permitted with regard to the written opinion for any purpose either in discovery or at trial. 

    B. 1. The court may, upon application of the plaintiff for good cause shown, grant the plaintiff an extension of time, not exceeding ninety (90) days after the date the petition is filed, except for good cause shown, to file in the action an affidavit attesting that the plaintiff has obtained a written opinion from a qualified expert as described in paragraph 1 of subsection A of this section. 

    2. If on the expiration of an extension period described in paragraph 1 of this subsection, the plaintiff has failed to file in the action an affidavit as described above, the court shall, upon motion of the defendant, unless good cause is shown for such failure, dismiss the action without prejudice to its refiling. If good cause is shown, the resulting extension shall in no event exceed sixty (60) days.  

    C. 1. Upon written request of any defendant in a civil action for professional negligence, the plaintiff shall, within ten (10) business days after receipt of such request, provide the defendant with: 

    a.  a copy of the written opinion of a qualified expert mentioned in an affidavit filed pursuant to subsection A or B of this section, and 

    b.  an authorization from the plaintiff in a form that complies with applicable state and federal laws, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, for the release of any and all medical records related to the plaintiff for a period commencing five (5) years prior to the incident that is at issue in the civil action for professional negligence. 

    2. If the plaintiff fails to comply with paragraph 1 of this subsection, the court shall, upon motion of the defendant, unless good cause is shown for such failure, dismiss the action without prejudice to its refiling. 

    D. A plaintiff in a civil action for professional negligence may claim an exemption to the provisions of this section based on indigency pursuant to the qualification rules established as set forth in Section 4 of this act.  

    Added by Laws 2009, c. 228, § 2, eff. Nov. 1, 2009. 

     

    §12-21. Repealed by Laws 1980, c. 180, § 6, emerg. eff. May 13, 1980. 

    §1222. Books to be kept by district clerk. 

    The clerk of the district court shall keep an appearance docket, a trial docket, a journal and such other records as may be ordered by the court or required by law. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5322. Amended by Laws 1988, c. 102, § 2, eff. Nov. 1, 1988; Laws 1990, c. 251, § 18, eff. Jan. 1, 1991; Laws 1991, c. 251, § 1, eff. June 1, 1991; Laws 1993, c. 351, § 7, eff. Oct. 1, 1993. 

     

    §1223. Appearance docket. 

    On the appearance docket he shall enter all actions in the order in which they are brought, the date of the summons, the time of the return thereof by the officer, and his return thereon, the time of filing the petition, and all subsequent pleadings and papers, and an abstract of all judgments and orders of the court. An abstract shall contain a very brief description of the order or judgment rendered. It must not be encumbered with a detailed recital of the terms. Proceedings other than those which culminated in an order or judgment shall not be abstracted into the appearance docket. Either the judge or the clerk may prepare an appearance docket entry in the form of a minute, or the content of the entry may be dictated either by the judge or the clerk into an electronic recording device. The clerk shall transcribe onto the appearance docket all minute entries made and all the electronicallyrecorded abstracts. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5323. Amended by Laws 1972, c. 119, § 1, emerg. eff. March 31, 1972. 

     

    §12-24. Journal record - Instruments to be entered - Microfilm. 

    Upon the journal record required to be kept by the clerk of the district court in civil cases exclusive of the small claims docket and juvenile proceedings docket shall be entered copies of the following instruments on file: 

    1. All items of process by which the court acquired jurisdiction of the person of each defendant in the case; and 

    2. All instruments filed in the case that bear the signature of the judge and specify clearly the relief granted or order made. 

    The journal may be kept entirely in microfilm, optical disks, or other appropriate medium. Existing journal records in the custody of the court clerk may be destroyed after being stored on at least two microfilm records, optical disks, or other appropriate medium, one of which shall be placed by the court clerk with the Archives and Records Division of the Oklahoma Department of Libraries, or in a bank or other appropriate local depository, and one shall be available for public use in the court clerk’s office. In case of functional failure of the record in the court clerk’s office the copy in storage shall be made available to anyone requesting access to it. The cost of the storage medium and equipment and for viewing and copying shall be paid out of the court fund upon approval by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Copies of the journal record reproduced from microfilm, optical disk, and other media and copies of the original instruments that are part of the journal records, when certified by the court clerk having the custody of the original, may be received in evidence with the same effect as the original would have had and without further identification by the party desiring to offer them. 

    R.L.1910, § 5324. Amended by Laws 1971, c. 245, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1971; Laws 1972, c. 146, § 1, emerg. eff. April 7, 1972; Laws 2004, c. 447, § 2, emerg. eff. June 4, 2004. 

     

    §1224.1. Disposal of records. 

    Any clerk, upon microfilming the record as above set forth, is directed to destroy the record, provided that such record shall first be offered to the county and State Historical Society. 

    Added by Laws 1971, c. 245, § 2, eff. Oct. 1, 1971. 

     

    §12-25. Repealed by Laws 1990, c. 251, § 20, eff. Jan. 1, 1991. 

    §12-25.1. Repealed by Laws 1993, c. 351, § 29, eff. Oct. 1, 1993. 

    §12-26. Repealed by Laws 1988, c. 102, § 3, eff. Nov. 1, 1988. 

    §1227. Clerk may collect judgment and costs. 

    Where there is no execution outstanding, the clerk of the court in which the judgment was rendered may receive the amount of the judgment and costs, and receipt therefor, with the same effect as if the same had been paid to the sheriff on an execution; and the clerk shall be liable to be amerced in the same manner and amount as a sheriff for refusing to pay the same to the party entitled thereto, when requested, and shall also be liable on his official bond. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5327. 

     

    §1228. Clerks to issue writs and orders Preparation. 

    All writs and orders for provisional remedies, and process of every kind shall be prepared by the party or his attorney who is seeking the issuance of such writ, order, or process and shall be issued by the clerks of the several courts. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5328. Amended by Laws 1969, c. 210, § 1. 

     

    §12-29. Clerks to file and preserve papers - Refusal to file sham legal process. 

    A. It is the duty of the clerk of each of the courts to file together and carefully preserve in his office, all papers delivered to him for that purpose, except as provided in subsection B of this section, in every action or special proceeding. 

    B. The court clerk may refuse to file any document presented for filing if the clerk believes that the document constitutes sham legal process, as defined by Section 1533 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes. 

    C. 1. Any person aggrieved by the refusal of a court clerk to file any document provided for in subsection A of this section may petition the district court for a writ of mandamus to compel the clerk to file the tendered document. 

    2. At the time of refusal, the person aggrieved shall file a notice of refusal with the court clerk for the purpose of tolling any applicable statute of limitations in the event the person prevails in any action so commenced, if the person wishes for the statute of limitations to be tolled. The refusal notice shall be submitted on a form provided by the court clerk, but must be filled out by the aggrieved party. A copy of the instrument that the clerk refused to file must be attached to the notice of refusal. The court clerk shall stamp the date of refusal on the notice of refusal. 

    The refusal notice shall be in the following form: 

    STATE OF OKLAHOMA 

    __________ COUNTY 

    NOTICE OF REFUSAL 

    The Office of Court Clerk of __________ County, Oklahoma, has on __________ (date) refused to file a document designated ___________ (title of document or brief description of document). A copy of the refused document must be attached to this notice of refusal or the clerk cannot accept it for filing. 

    Signed:_____________  Signed: ________________________ 

    Court Clerk   Aggrieved party or attorney 

    for aggrieved party 

    _______County, Oklahoma  

    Address:__________________ 

    __________________________ 

    3. The action for mandamus must be filed with the district court within twenty (20) days after the notice of refusal is filed with the county clerk. If the writ of mandamus is granted, the court clerk shall refund the fee for filing the action. Notice of the pendency of a mandamus action filed pursuant to this section shall be filed in accordance with Section 2004.2 of this title. If the court determines that the tendered document is not sham legal process, the court shall order the clerk to file the tendered paper or papers. For any instrument which the court orders to be filed pursuant to this subsection, the date of filing shall be retroactive to the date the notice of refusal was filed. 

    D. If a court clerk improperly files or refuses to file a document provided for in subsection B of this section, the clerk shall be immune from liability for such action in any civil suit. 

    E. A clerk shall post a sign, in letters at least one (1) inch in height, that is clearly visible to the general public in or near the clerk's office stating that it is a felony to intentionally or knowingly file or attempt to file sham legal process with the clerk. Failure of the clerk to post such a sign shall not create a defense to any criminal or civil action based on sham legal process. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5329. Amended by Laws 1997, c. 405, § 2, emerg. eff. June 13, 1997. 

     

    §12-30. Each case to be kept separate - Correction of case number or other identifying data. 

    The papers in each case shall be kept in a separate file marked with the title and number of the case. If the court clerk discovers a pleading or other paper which has been filed or submitted for filing that bears an incorrect case number or other incorrect identifying data, the court clerk shall correct the case number or other incorrect identifying data and enter a notation on the docket sheet of both cases recording the correction. The corrected pleading or other paper shall be placed in the court file bearing the corrected case number. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5330. Amended by Laws 1972, c. 119, § 2, emerg. eff. March 31, 1972; Laws 1997, c. 239, § 3, eff. July 1, 1997. 

     

    §1231. Endorsements. 

    He shall endorse upon every paper filed with him, the day of filing it; and upon every order for a provisional remedy, and upon every undertaking given under the same, the day of its return to his office. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5331. 

     

    §1231.1. Removal of records or files from office of court clerk. 

    Only officers of the court or persons, firms or corporations holding a certificate of authority pursuant to the Oklahoma Abstractors Law, Section 227.10 et seq. of Title 74 of the Oklahoma Statutes and other authorized court personnel may remove records or case files from the office of the court clerk for a period not to exceed twentyfour (24) hours. Rules for the removal of records or case files shall be promulgated by the district court having jurisdiction over the county in which such records or case files are situated. 

    Added by Laws 1986, c. 214, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 1986. 

     

    §1232. Entry on return of summons. 

    He shall, upon the return of every summons, enter upon the appearance docket whether or not service has been made; and, if the summons has been served, the name of the defendant or defendants summoned and the day and manner of the service upon each one. The entry shall be evidence in case of the loss of the summons. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5332. Amended by Laws 1953, p. 47, § 1. 

     

    §1232.1. Material for record. 

    The record shall be made up from the petition, the process, return, the pleadings subsequent thereto, reports, verdicts, orders, judgments, and all material acts and proceedings of the court; but if the items of an account, or the copies of papers attached to the pleadings, be voluminous, the court may order the record to be made by abbreviating the same, or inserting a pertinent description thereof, or by omitting them entirely. Evidence must not be recorded. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5146. Renumbered from § 704 of this title by Laws 1972, c. 119, § 5, emerg. eff. March 3l, 1972. 

     

    §12-32.2. Repealed by Laws 1990, c. 251, § 20, eff. Jan. 1, 1991. 

    §12-32.3. Repealed by Laws 1993, c. 351, § 29, eff. Oct. 1, 1993. 

    §1233. Clerk to keep court records, books and papers Statistical and other information for Supreme Court, President Pro Tempore of Senate and Speaker of House. 

    He shall keep the records and books and papers appertaining to the court and record its proceedings. He is directed to furnish without cost to the Supreme Court of Oklahoma and to the President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives such statistical and other information as the court or Legislature may require, including, but without being limited to, the number and classification of cases: 

    1. Filed with the court; 

    2. Disposed of by the court, and the manner of such disposition; and 

    3. The number of cases pending before the court, at each term of the court. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5333. Amended by Laws 1951, p. 23, § 1; Laws 1981, c. 272, § 2, eff. July 1, 1981. 

     

    §1234. Applicable to what courts. 

    The provisions of this article shall, as far as they are applicable, apply to the clerk of all courts of record. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5334. 

     

    §1235. Powers and duties of clerks Statistical and other information for Supreme Court, President Pro Tempore of Senate and Speaker of House. 

    The clerks of each of the courts shall exercise the powers and perform the duties imposed upon them by the statutes of this state and by the common law. The clerks of each of the courts of record shall furnish without cost to the Supreme Court of Oklahoma and to the President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives such statistical and other information as the court or Legislature may require, including, but without being limited to, the number and classification of cases: 

    1. Filed with the court; 

    2. Disposed of by the court, and the manner of such disposition; and 

    3. The number of cases pending before the court, at each term of the court. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5335. Amended by Laws 1951, p. 23, § 2; Laws 1981, c. 272, § 3, eff. July 1, 1981. 

     

    §1235.1. Court clerk may process passports Election Passport fees. 

    A. The duties of the court clerk may include processing of passports as permitted and prescribed by federal law and regulation if the court clerk files a written election with the Administrative Office of the Courts to process passports. Upon the filing of the election to process passports as an official duty and service, the court clerk shall execute all passport applications presented. 

    B. Amounts collected pursuant to subsection A of this section shall be retained by the court clerk and deposited in the Court Clerk's Revolving Fund pursuant to the provisions of Section 220 of Title 19 of the Oklahoma Statutes. 

    Added by Laws 1983, c. 127, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 1983. Amended by Laws 1997, c. 400, § 2, eff. July 1, 1997; Laws 1998, c. 310, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 1998. 

     

    §12-36. Repealed by Laws 1974, c. 153, § 17-114, operative Jan. 1, 1975. 

    §12-37. Repealed by Laws 1979, c. 221, § 18, emerg. eff. May 1, 1979. 

    §12-38. Seal of clerk of district court. 

    A. Every clerk of a district court shall keep a seal, to be furnished by the court, which shall contain the name of the county and the words "Oklahoma" and "District Court". The seal may be either metallic or nonmetallic. 

    B. Every instrument, document, record, paper or other thing required to be certified by the court or by the court clerk shall contain the seal of the court clerk. Where electronic transmission of a document is allowed, the document shall be deemed certified if it contains a digital signature or equivalent signing technology, as approved and supplied by the Supreme Court of Oklahoma. The Supreme Court shall be the guardian of digital signatures or equivalent signing technology and shall govern all rules as to validity and authenticity. 

    C. Any person who uses the seal of the court clerk with the intent to deceive or mislead any person as to the authenticity of the seal, a certification required by subsection B of this section, or the thing to which the seal is applied shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. 

    D. Electronic transmittals of documents shall be allowed if safeguards are in place to protect against unauthorized users and if agents intended to receive the transmittals have agreed to electronic processing of the documents. 

    Added by Laws 1991, c. 114, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1991. Amended by Laws 2004, c. 94, § 1, eff. July 1, 2004. 

     

    §12-39. Court clerk – Prohibition of posting documents containing certain charges on court-controlled web site. 

    A. Beginning July 1, 2005, no court clerk shall post on a court-controlled web site any document that contains a charge in Sections 886 and 888 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes, if the offense involved the detestable and abominable crime against nature with mankind, or a charge in Section 843.5 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes, or Section 644, 741, 843.1, 885, 1021, 1021.2, 1021.3, 1040.13a, 1081, 1085, 1087, 1088, Sections 1111 through 1116 or Section 1123 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes. 

    B. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit access to any original document as provided by law. 

    Added by Laws 2005, c. 387, § 1, eff. July 1, 2005. Amended by Laws 2009, c. 234, § 110, emerg. eff. May 21, 2009. 

     

    §1251. Style of process. 

    The style of all process shall be "The State of Oklahoma." It shall be under the seal of the court from whence the same shall issue, shall be signed by the clerk, and dated the day it is issued. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5319. 

     

    §1252. Appointment of substitute for sheriff. 

    The court or judge, or any clerk in the absence of the judge from the county, for good cause, may appoint a person to serve a particular process or order, who shall have the same power to execute it which the sheriff has. The person may be appointed on the application of the party obtaining the process or order, and the return must be verified by affidavit. He shall be entitled to the same fees allowed to the sheriff for similar services. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5320. 

     

    §1253. Sheriff to endorse time of receipt on process. 

    The sheriff shall endorse upon every summons, order of arrest, or for the delivery of property or of attachment or injunction, the day and hour it was received by him. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5336. 

     

    §1254. Must execute and return process Execution by county clerk when sheriff disqualified. 

    He shall execute every summons, order or other process, and return the same as required by law; and if he fail to do so, unless he make it appear to the satisfaction of the court that he was prevented by inevitable accident from so doing, he shall be amerced by the court in a sum not exceeding One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00), upon motion and ten (10) days' notice, and shall be liable to the action of any person aggrieved by such failure. Provided that whenever any party, his agent or attorney, shall make and file with the clerk of the proper court an affidavit, stating that he believes that the sheriff of said county will not, by reason of either partiality, prejudice, consanguinity or interest, faithfully perform his duties in any suit commenced in said court, the clerk shall direct the original, or other process, in such suit to the county clerk who shall execute the same in like manner as the sheriff might or ought to have done, and who shall be subject to the same penalties as the sheriff if he fail to do so, unless he make it appear that he was prevented by inevitable accident from so doing, and the county clerk shall perform all of the other duties of the sheriff when the sheriff shall be a party to the case, or is disqualified. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5337. Amended by Laws 1953, p. 47, § 1. 

     

    §1255. Sheriff may adjourn court, when. 

    If the judge of a court fail to attend at the time and place appointed for holding his court, the sheriff shall have power to adjourn the court, from day to day, until the regular or assigned judge attend or a judge pro tempore be selected; but if the judge be not present in his court, nor a judge be assigned or a judge pro tempore be selected, within two (2) days after the first day of the term, then the court shall stand adjourned for the term. The sheriff shall exercise the powers and duties conferred and imposed upon him by the statutes of this state and by the common law. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5338. 

     

    §1261. Justification of surety. 

    A ministerial officer whose duty it is to take security in any undertaking provided for by this Code or by other statutes shall require the person offered as surety to make an affidavit of his qualifications, which affidavit may be made before such officer, and shall be endorsed upon or attached to the undertaking. The taking of such an affidavit shall not exempt the officer from any liability to which he might otherwise be subject for taking insufficient security. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5342. 

     

    §1262. Qualifications of surety. 

    The surety in every undertaking provided for by this Code or other statutes unless a surety company, must be a resident of this state and worth double the sum to be secured, over and above all exemptions, debts and liabilities. Where there are two or more sureties in the same undertaking they must in the aggregate have the qualifications prescribed in this section. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5343. 

     

    §1263. Real estate mortgage as bond. 

    In every instance in this state where bond, indemnity or guaranty is required, a first mortgage upon improved real estate within this state shall be accepted: Provided, that the amount of such bond, guaranty or indemnity shall not exceed fifty percent (50%) of the reasonable valuation of such improved real estate, exclusive of all buildings thereon; Provided, further, that where the amount of such bond, guaranty or indemnity shall exceed fifty percent (50%) of the reasonable valuation of such improved real estate, exclusive of all buildings, then such first mortgage shall be accepted to the extent of such fifty percent (50%) valuation. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5344. 

     

    §1264. Valuation of real estate. 

    The officer, whose duty it is to accept and approve such bond, guaranty or indemnity shall require the affidavits of two freeholders versed in land values in the community where such real estate is located to the value of such real estate. Said officer shall have the authority to administer the oaths and take said affidavits. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5345. 

     

    §1265. False valuation Penalty. 

    Any person willfully making a false affidavit as to the value of any such real estate shall be guilty of perjury and punished accordingly. Any officer administering or accepting such affidavit knowing it to be false, shall be guilty of the felony of subornation of perjury and punished accordingly. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5346. Amended by Laws 1997, c. 133, § 130, eff. July 1, 1999. 

     

    NOTE: Laws 1998, 1st Ex.Sess., c. 2, § 23 amended the effective date of Laws 1997, c. 133, § 130 from July 1, 1998, to July 1, 1999. 

     

    §12-66. State as a party – Bond not required – Automatic stay - Payment of costs. 

    A. Whenever an action is filed in any of the courts of this state where the State of Oklahoma or any of its departments or agencies, as defined in Section 152 of Title 51 of the Oklahoma Statutes, is a party, no bonds or other obligation of security shall be required from the state or from any party acting under the direction of the state, either to prosecute, answer, or appeal the action. The execution of a judgment or final order of any judicial tribunal against the state or any of its departments or agencies is automatically stayed without the execution of a supersedeas bond until any appeal of such judgment or final order has finally been determined. 

    In case of an adverse decision, such costs as by law are taxable against the state, or against the party acting by its direction, shall be paid out of the funds of the department under whose direction the proceedings were instituted or defended. 

    B. Costs shall be paid to the court fund of the district court in which an action is filed from the first funds collected in satisfaction of any judgment obtained by this state or any party acting under the direction of this state, except when the funds are collected pursuant to a child support order, judgment, or pursuant to any civil forfeiture action. No action filed by this state or by any party acting under the direction of this state shall be dismissed with unpaid costs of the action without the prior notification of the district court clerk of the county in which the action was filed. 

    Added by Laws 1923, c. 203, p. 354, § 1, emerg. eff. March 31, 1923. Amended by Laws 1992, c. 357, § 1, eff. July 1, 1992; Laws 1999, c. 359, § 2, eff. Nov. 1, 1999; Laws 2002, c. 468, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 2002; Laws 2007, c. 248, § 1, emerg. eff. June 4, 2007. 

     

    §12-67. Repealed by Laws 1961, p. 59, § 1. 

    §1268. Appearance bond Application of penalty Right to enforce. 

    If a bench warrant or command to enforce a court order by body attachment is issued in a case for divorce, legal separation, annulment or alimony, or in any civil proceeding in which a judgment debtor is summoned to answer as to assets, and the person arrested, pursuant to the authority of such process, makes a bond for his appearance at the time of trial or other proceeding in the case, the bond made shall be disbursed by the court clerk upon order of the court to the party in the suit who has procured the bench warrant or command for body attachment rather than to the State of Oklahoma. The penalty on the bond, or any part thereof, shall, when recovered, first be applied to discharge the obligation adjudicated in the case in which the bond was posted. The party who is the obligee on such bond shall have the right to enforce its penalty to the same extent and in the same manner as the state may enforce the penalty on a forfeited bail bond. 

    Added by Laws 1976, c. 265, § 1, operative Oct. 1, 1976. Amended by Laws 1977, c. 26, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1977. Renumbered from § 1276.1 of this title by Laws 1977, c. 26, § 2, eff. Oct. 1, 1977. 

     

    §1271. Deputy may perform official duties. 

    Any duty enjoined by this Code upon a ministerial officer, and any act permitted to be done by him, may be performed by his lawful deputy. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5339. 

     

    §1272. Affirmation. 

    Whenever an oath is required by this Code, the affirmation of a person, conscientiously scrupulous of taking an oath shall have the same effect. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5340. 

     

    §12-73. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §1274. Supreme Court rules. 

    The Justices of the Supreme Court shall meet every two (2) years during the month of June at the capitol of the state and revise their general rules, and make such amendments thereto as may be required to carry into effect the provisions of this Code, and shall make such further rules consistent therewith as they may deem proper. The rules so made shall apply to the Supreme Court, the district courts, the superior courts, the county courts and all other courts of record. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5347. 

     

    §1275. Publications in "patent insides". 

    All publications and notices required by law to be published in newspapers in this state if published in newspapers having one side of the paper printed away from the office of publication, known as patent outsides or insides, shall have the same force and effect as though the same were published in newspapers printed wholly and published in the county where such publication shall be made, if one side of the paper is printed in said county where said notices are required to be published. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5348. 

     

    §1276. Action on official bond. 

    When an officer, executor or administrator within this state, by misconduct or neglect of duty, forfeits his bond or renders his sureties liable, any person injured thereby, or who is, by law, entitled to the benefit of the security, may bring an action thereon in his own name, against the officer, executor or administrator and his sureties, to recover the amount to which he may be entitled by reason of the delinquency. The action may be instituted and proceeded in on a certified copy of the bond, which copy shall be furnished by the person holding the original thereof. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5349. 

     

    §1277. May be several actions on same security. 

    A judgment in favor of a party for one delinquency does not preclude the same or another party from an action on the same security for another delinquency. 

    R.L. 1910, § 5350. 

     

    §1278. Immaterial errors to be disregarded. 

    The court, in every stage of action, must disregard any error or defect in the pleadings or proceedings which does not affect the substantial rights of the adverse party; and no judgment shall be reversed or affected by reason of such error or defect. 

    R.L. 1910, § 4791. 

     

    §12-79. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-80. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §1281. Payments into court for infant or incompetent person Disposition. 

    Where any amount of money not exceeding Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) shall be deposited and paid into any court of record of this state by virtue of any judgment, order, settlement, distribution or decree for the use and benefit of, and to the credit of, any minor or incompetent person having no legal guardian of his estate within this state, and no person shall within ninety (90) days thereafter become the legal and qualified guardian of the estate of such minor or incompetent person, if it appears to the court that such money is needed for the support of such minor or incompetent person or that it is otherwise for the best interest of such minor or incompetent person, the court may, in its discretion, order payment of such funds to be made to any proper and suitable person as trustee for such minor or incompetent person, with bond, as the court may direct, to be expended for the support, use, and benefit of such minor or incompetent person. Such order may be made by the court in the original cause in which the funds are credited upon the application of any interested person; and the court may direct the clerk of the court to make payment of the same to be made in installments or in one lump sum as may seem for the best interests of such minor or incompetent person. 

    Added by Laws 1931, p. 2, § 1. Amended by Laws 1951, p. 24, § 1. 

     

    §12-82. Repealed by Laws 1984, c. 164, § 32, eff. Nov. 1, 1984. 

    §12-83. Conserving monies obtained for or on behalf of persons under eighteen years of age in court proceedings. 

    A. Monies recovered in any court proceeding by a next friend or guardian ad litem for or on behalf of a person who is less than eighteen (18) years of age in excess of One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00) over sums sufficient for paying costs and expenses including medical bills and attorney's fees shall be deposited, by order of the court, in one or more federally insured banking, credit union or savings and loan institutions, or invested by a bank or trust company having trust powers under federal or state law, approved by the court; provided, that the court may approve a structured settlement, by the terms of which the proceeds of a settlement may be invested by the plaintiff or the defendant in an annuity to be paid to or for the benefit of the minor by an insurance company licensed in this state. 

    B. Until the person becomes eighteen (18) years of age, withdrawals of monies from the account or accounts shall be solely pursuant to order of the court made in the case in which recovery was had. 

    C. When an application for the order is made by a person who is not represented by an attorney, the judge of the court shall prepare the order. 

    D. This section shall not apply if a legal guardian has been appointed for the minor prior to any award of monies pursuant to subsection A of this section. If a legal guardian is appointed after any award of monies pursuant to subsection A of this section, the legal guardian may petition the district court in the county where the federally insured funds are held for an order directing the bank, credit union or savings and loan to transfer the funds to the legal guardian. The district court may make the granting of the request to transfer funds subject to reasonable safeguards. 

    Added by Laws 1971, c. 98, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1971. Amended by Laws 1972, c. 197, § 1, emerg. eff. April 7, 1972; Laws 1984, c. 53, § 1, emerg. eff. March 28, 1984; Laws 1993, c. 98, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1993; Laws 1996, c. 293, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 1996; Laws 2003, c. 140, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 2003. 

     

    §12-84. Repealed by Laws 1993, c. 98, § 2, eff. Sept. 1, 1993. 

    §12-85. Repealed by Laws 1982, c. 290, § 11. 

    §1291. Actions barred not revived. 

    Any right of action, which shall have been barred by any statute heretofore in force, shall not be deemed to be revived by the provisions of this article, nor shall the prior statutes of limitation be extended as to any cause of action which has accrued prior to the time this article shall take effect. 

    R.L. 1910, § 4653. 

     

    §1292. Limitations applicable. 

    Civil actions can only be commenced within the periods prescribed in this article, after the cause of action shall have accrued; but where, in special cases, a different limitation is prescribed by statute, the action shall be governed by such limitation. 

    R.L. 1910, § 4654. 

     

    §1293. Limitation of real actions. 

    Actions for the recovery of real property, or for the determination of any adverse right or interest therein, can only be brought within the periods hereinafter prescribed, after the cause of action shall have accrued, and at no other time thereafter: 

    (1) An action for the recovery of real property sold on execution, or for the recovery of real estate partitioned by judgment in kind, or sold, or conveyed pursuant to partition proceedings, or other judicial sale, or an action for the recovery of real estate distributed under decree of district court in administration or probate proceedings, when brought by or on behalf of the execution debtor or former owner, or his or their heirs, or any person claiming under him or them by title acquired after the date of the judgment or by any person claiming to be an heir or devisee of the decedent in whose estate such decree was rendered, or claiming under, as successor in interest, any such heir or devisee, within five (5) years after the date of the recording of the deed made in pursuance of the sale or proceeding, or within five (5) years after the date of the entry of the final judgment of partition in kind where no sale is had in the partition proceedings; or within five (5) years after the recording of the decree of distribution rendered by the district court in an administration or probate proceeding; provided, however, that where any such action pertains to real estate distributed under decree of district court in administration or probate proceedings and would at the passage of this act be barred by the terms hereof, such action may be brought within one (1) year after the passage of this act; this proviso shall not be construed to revive any action barred by paragraph 4 of this section. 

    (2) An action for the recovery of real property sold by executors, administrators, or guardians, upon an order or judgment of a court directing such sale, brought by the heirs or devisees of the deceased person, or the ward of his guardian, or any person claiming under any or either of them, by the title acquired after the date of judgment or order, within five (5) years after the date of recording of the deed made in pursuance of the sale. 

    (3) An action for the recovery of real property sold for taxes, within five (5) years after the date of the recording of the tax deed, except where lands exempt from taxation by reason of any Act of the Congress of the United States of America have been sold for taxes, in which case there shall be no limitation; provided, nothing herein shall be construed as reviving any cause of action for recovery of real property heretofore barred nor as divesting any interest acquired by adverse possession prior to the effective date hereof. 

    (4) An action for the recovery of real property not hereinbefore provided for, within fifteen (15) years. 

    (5) An action for the forcible entry and detention or forcible detention only of real property, within two (2) years. 

    (6) Numbered paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 shall be fully operative regardless of whether the deed or judgment or the precedent action or proceeding upon which such deed or judgment is based is void or voidable in whole or in part, for any reason, jurisdictional or otherwise; provided that this paragraph shall not be applied so as to bar causes of action which have heretofore accrued, until the expiration of one (1) year from and after its effective date. 

    R.L. 1910, § 4655. Amended by Laws 1945, p. 37, § 1; Laws 1949, p. 95, § 1; Laws 1961, p. 59, § 1, emerg. eff. July 26, 1961. 

     

    §1294. Persons under disability Time to sue to recover realty. 

    Any person entitled to bring an action for the recovery of real property, who may be under any legal disability when the cause of action accrues, may bring his action within two (2) years after the disability is removed. 

    R.L. 1910, § 4656. 

     

    §12-95. Limitation of other actions. 

    A. Civil actions other than for the recovery of real property can only be brought within the following periods, after the cause of action shall have accrued, and not afterwards: 

    1. Within five (5) years: An action upon any contract, agreement, or promise in writing; 

    2. Within three (3) years: An action upon a contract express or implied not in writing; an action upon a liability created by statute other than a forfeiture or penalty; and an action on a foreign judgment; 

    3. Within two (2) years: An action for trespass upon real property; an action for taking, detaining, or injuring personal property, including actions for the specific recovery of personal property; an action for injury to the rights of another, not arising on contract, and not hereinafter enumerated; an action for relief on the ground of fraud - the cause of action in such case shall not be deemed to have accrued until the discovery of the fraud; 

    4. Within one (1) year: An action for libel, slander, assault, battery, malicious prosecution, or false imprisonment; an action upon a statute for penalty or forfeiture, except where the statute imposing it prescribes a different limitation; 

    5. An action upon the official bond or undertaking of an executor, administrator, guardian, sheriff, or any other officer, or upon the bond or undertaking given in attachment, injunction, arrest, or in any case whatever required by the statute, can only be brought within five (5) years after the cause of action shall have accrued; 

    6. An action based on intentional conduct brought by any person for recovery of damages for injury suffered as a result of childhood sexual abuse incidents or exploitation as defined by Section 1-1-105 of Title 10A of the Oklahoma Statutes or incest can only be brought within the latter of the following periods: 

    a.  within two (2) years of the act alleged to have caused the injury or condition, or 

    b.  within two (2) years of the time the victim discovered or reasonably should have discovered that the injury or condition was caused by the act or that the act caused the injury for which the claim is brought. 

    Provided, however, that the time limit for commencement of an action pursuant to this paragraph is tolled for a child until the child reaches the age of eighteen (18) years or until five (5) years after the perpetrator is released from the custody of a state, federal or local correctional facility or jail, whichever is later. No action may be brought against the alleged perpetrator or the estate of the alleged perpetrator after the death of such alleged perpetrator, unless the perpetrator was convicted of a crime of sexual abuse involving the claimant. An action pursuant to this paragraph must be based upon objective verifiable evidence in order for the victim to recover damages for injuries suffered by reason of such sexual abuse, exploitation, or incest. The evidence should include both proof that the victim had psychologically repressed the memory of the facts upon which the claim was predicated and that there was corroborating evidence that the sexual abuse, exploitation, or incest actually occurred. The victim need not establish which act in a series of continuing sexual abuse incidents, exploitation incidents, or incest caused the injury complained of, but may compute the date of discovery from the date of discovery of the last act by the same perpetrator which is part of a common scheme or plan of sexual abuse, exploitation, or incest. Provided further, any action based on intentional conduct specified in paragraph 7 of this section must be commenced within twenty (20) years of the victim reaching the age of eighteen (18); 

    7. An action based on intentional conduct brought by any person for recovery of damages for injury suffered as a result of criminal actions, as defined by the Oklahoma Statutes, may be brought against any person incarcerated or under the supervision of a state, federal or local correctional facility on or after November 1, 2003: 

    a.  at any time during the incarceration of the offender for the offense on which the action is based, or 

    b.  within five (5) years after the perpetrator is released from the custody of a state, federal or local correctional facility, if the defendant was serving time for the offense on which the action is based; 

    8. An action to establish paternity and to enforce support obligations can be brought any time before the child reaches the age of eighteen (18); 

    9. An action to establish paternity can be brought by a child in accordance with Section 7700-606 of Title 10 of the Oklahoma Statutes; 

    10. Court-ordered child support is owed until it is paid in full and it is not subject to a statute of limitations; 

    11. All actions filed by an inmate or by a person based upon facts that occurred while the person was an inmate in the custody of one of the following: 

    a.  the State of Oklahoma, 

    b.  a contractor of the State of Oklahoma, or 

    c.  a political subdivision of the State of Oklahoma, 

    to include, but not be limited to, the revocation of earned credits and claims for injury to the rights of another, shall be commenced within one (1) year after the cause of action shall have accrued; and 

    12. An action for relief, not hereinbefore provided for, can only be brought within five (5) years after the cause of action shall have accrued. 

    B. Collection of debts owed by inmates who have received damage awards pursuant to Section 566.1 of Title 57 of the Oklahoma Statutes shall be governed by the time limitations imposed by that section. 

    R.L.1910, § 4657. Amended by Laws 1953, p. 48, § 1, emerg. eff. June 1, 1953; Laws 1961, p. 60, § 1; Laws 1971, c. 316, § 3, emerg. eff. June 24, 1971; Laws 1992, c. 344, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1992; Laws 1994, c. 356, § 11, eff. Sept. 1, 1994; Laws 1996, c. 233, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 1996; Laws 2002, c. 402, § 1, eff. July 1, 2002; Laws 2004, c. 168, § 1, emerg. eff. April 27, 2004; Laws 2005, c. 159, § 1, emerg. eff. May 10, 2005; Laws 2008, c. 99, § 4, eff. Nov. 1, 2008; Laws 2009, c. 234, § 111, emerg. eff. May 21, 2009. 

    NOTE: Laws 2004, c. 168, § 18, providing for an effective date of Nov. 1, 2004, was repealed by Laws 2004, c. 382, § 4, emerg. eff. June 3, 2004. 

     

    §1296. Persons under disability in actions other than to recover realty Exceptions Personal injury to minor arising from medical malpractice. 

    If a person entitled to bring an action other than for the recovery of real property, except for a penalty or forfeiture, be, at the time the cause of action accrued, under any legal disability, every such person shall be entitled to bring such action within one (1) year after such disability shall be removed, except that, after the effective date of this section, an action for personal injury to a minor under the age of twelve (12) arising from medical malpractice must be brought by the minor's parent or guardian within seven (7) years of infliction of the injury, provided a minor twelve (12) years of age and older must bring such action within one (1) year after attaining majority, but in no event less than two (2) years from the date of infliction of the injury, and an action for personal injury arising from medical malpractice to a person adjudged incompetent must be brought by the incompetent person's guardian within seven (7) years of infliction of the injury, provided an incompetent who has been adjudged competent must bring such action within one (1) year after the adjudication of such competency, but i

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