State Codes and Statutes

Statutes > Wisconsin > 908 > 908.04

908.04

908.04 Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable; definition of unavailability.

908.04(1)

(1) "Unavailability as a witness" includes situations in which the declarant:

908.04(1)(a)

(a) Is exempted by ruling of the judge on the ground of privilege from testifying concerning the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or

908.04(1)(b)

(b) Persists in refusing to testify concerning the subject matter of the declarant's statement despite an order of the judge to do so; or

908.04(1)(c)

(c) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or

908.04(1)(d)

(d) Is unable to be present or to testify at the hearing because of death or then existing physical or mental illness or infirmity; or

908.04(1)(e)

(e) Is absent from the hearing and the proponent of the declarant's statement has been unable to procure the declarant's attendance by process or other reasonable means.

908.04(2)

(2) A declarant is not unavailable as a witness if the declarant's exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to the procurement or wrongdoing of the proponent of the declarant's statement for the purpose of preventing the witness from attending or testifying.

908.04 - ANNOT.

History: Sup. Ct. Order, 59 Wis. 2d R1, R302 (1973); 1991 a. 32.

908.04 - ANNOT.

Adequate medical evidence of probable psychological trauma is required to support an unavailability finding based on trauma, absent an emotional breakdown on the witness stand. State v. Sorenson, 152 Wis. 2d 471, 449 N.W.2d 280 (Ct. App. 1989).

908.04 - ANNOT.

The state must show by a preponderance of the evidence that the declarant's absence is due to the defendant's misconduct under sub. (2). State v. Frambs, 157 Wis. 2d 700, 460 N.W.2d 811 (Ct. App. 1990).

908.04 - ANNOT.

When testimonial statements are at issue, the only indicium of reliability sufficient to satisfy constitutional demands is confrontation. "Testimonial statements" applies at a minimum to prior testimony at a preliminary hearing, before a grand jury, or at a former trial and to police interrogations. Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36, 158 L. Ed 2d 177, 124 S. Ct. 1354 (2004).

908.04 - ANNOT.

A finding of unavailability of a witness due to mental illness, made on the basis of a confused and stale record, deprived the defendant of the right to confront witnesses, but the error was harmless. Burns v. Clusen, 599 F. Supp. 1438 (1984).

908.04 - ANNOT.

Hearsay and the Confrontation Clause. Biskupic. Wis. Law. May 2004.

State Codes and Statutes

Statutes > Wisconsin > 908 > 908.04

908.04

908.04 Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable; definition of unavailability.

908.04(1)

(1) "Unavailability as a witness" includes situations in which the declarant:

908.04(1)(a)

(a) Is exempted by ruling of the judge on the ground of privilege from testifying concerning the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or

908.04(1)(b)

(b) Persists in refusing to testify concerning the subject matter of the declarant's statement despite an order of the judge to do so; or

908.04(1)(c)

(c) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or

908.04(1)(d)

(d) Is unable to be present or to testify at the hearing because of death or then existing physical or mental illness or infirmity; or

908.04(1)(e)

(e) Is absent from the hearing and the proponent of the declarant's statement has been unable to procure the declarant's attendance by process or other reasonable means.

908.04(2)

(2) A declarant is not unavailable as a witness if the declarant's exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to the procurement or wrongdoing of the proponent of the declarant's statement for the purpose of preventing the witness from attending or testifying.

908.04 - ANNOT.

History: Sup. Ct. Order, 59 Wis. 2d R1, R302 (1973); 1991 a. 32.

908.04 - ANNOT.

Adequate medical evidence of probable psychological trauma is required to support an unavailability finding based on trauma, absent an emotional breakdown on the witness stand. State v. Sorenson, 152 Wis. 2d 471, 449 N.W.2d 280 (Ct. App. 1989).

908.04 - ANNOT.

The state must show by a preponderance of the evidence that the declarant's absence is due to the defendant's misconduct under sub. (2). State v. Frambs, 157 Wis. 2d 700, 460 N.W.2d 811 (Ct. App. 1990).

908.04 - ANNOT.

When testimonial statements are at issue, the only indicium of reliability sufficient to satisfy constitutional demands is confrontation. "Testimonial statements" applies at a minimum to prior testimony at a preliminary hearing, before a grand jury, or at a former trial and to police interrogations. Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36, 158 L. Ed 2d 177, 124 S. Ct. 1354 (2004).

908.04 - ANNOT.

A finding of unavailability of a witness due to mental illness, made on the basis of a confused and stale record, deprived the defendant of the right to confront witnesses, but the error was harmless. Burns v. Clusen, 599 F. Supp. 1438 (1984).

908.04 - ANNOT.

Hearsay and the Confrontation Clause. Biskupic. Wis. Law. May 2004.

State Codes and Statutes

State Codes and Statutes

Statutes > Wisconsin > 908 > 908.04

908.04

908.04 Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable; definition of unavailability.

908.04(1)

(1) "Unavailability as a witness" includes situations in which the declarant:

908.04(1)(a)

(a) Is exempted by ruling of the judge on the ground of privilege from testifying concerning the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or

908.04(1)(b)

(b) Persists in refusing to testify concerning the subject matter of the declarant's statement despite an order of the judge to do so; or

908.04(1)(c)

(c) Testifies to a lack of memory of the subject matter of the declarant's statement; or

908.04(1)(d)

(d) Is unable to be present or to testify at the hearing because of death or then existing physical or mental illness or infirmity; or

908.04(1)(e)

(e) Is absent from the hearing and the proponent of the declarant's statement has been unable to procure the declarant's attendance by process or other reasonable means.

908.04(2)

(2) A declarant is not unavailable as a witness if the declarant's exemption, refusal, claim of lack of memory, inability, or absence is due to the procurement or wrongdoing of the proponent of the declarant's statement for the purpose of preventing the witness from attending or testifying.

908.04 - ANNOT.

History: Sup. Ct. Order, 59 Wis. 2d R1, R302 (1973); 1991 a. 32.

908.04 - ANNOT.

Adequate medical evidence of probable psychological trauma is required to support an unavailability finding based on trauma, absent an emotional breakdown on the witness stand. State v. Sorenson, 152 Wis. 2d 471, 449 N.W.2d 280 (Ct. App. 1989).

908.04 - ANNOT.

The state must show by a preponderance of the evidence that the declarant's absence is due to the defendant's misconduct under sub. (2). State v. Frambs, 157 Wis. 2d 700, 460 N.W.2d 811 (Ct. App. 1990).

908.04 - ANNOT.

When testimonial statements are at issue, the only indicium of reliability sufficient to satisfy constitutional demands is confrontation. "Testimonial statements" applies at a minimum to prior testimony at a preliminary hearing, before a grand jury, or at a former trial and to police interrogations. Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36, 158 L. Ed 2d 177, 124 S. Ct. 1354 (2004).

908.04 - ANNOT.

A finding of unavailability of a witness due to mental illness, made on the basis of a confused and stale record, deprived the defendant of the right to confront witnesses, but the error was harmless. Burns v. Clusen, 599 F. Supp. 1438 (1984).

908.04 - ANNOT.

Hearsay and the Confrontation Clause. Biskupic. Wis. Law. May 2004.

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