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Article 7 - Justifiable Use of Force; Exoneration

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(720 ILCS 5/Art. 7 heading) ARTICLE 7.JUSTIFIABLE USE OF FORCE; EXONERATION(720 ILCS 5/7‑1) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑1)Sec. 7‑1. Use of force in defense of person.(a) A person is justified in the use of force against another when and to the extent that he reasonably believes that such conduct is necessary to defend himself or another against such other's imminent use of unlawful force. However, he is justified in the use of force which is intended or likely to cause death or great bodily harm only if he reasonably believes that such force is necessary to prevent imminent death or great bodily harm to himself or another, or the commission of a forcible felony.(b) In no case shall any act involving the use of force justified under this Section give rise to any claim or liability brought by or on behalf of any person acting within the definition of "aggressor" set forth in Section 7‑4 of this Article, or the estate, spouse, or other family member of such a person, against the person or estate of the person using such justified force, unless the use of force involves willful or wanton misconduct.(Source: P.A. 93‑832, eff. 7‑28‑04.)(720 ILCS 5/7‑2) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑2)Sec. 7‑2. Use of force in defense of dwelling. (a) A person is justified in the use of force against another when and to the extent that he reasonably believes that such conduct is necessary to prevent or terminate such other's unlawful entry into or attack upon a dwelling. However, he is justified in the use of force which is intended or likely to cause death or great bodily harm only if: (1) The entry is made or attempted in a violent, riotous, or tumultuous manner, and he reasonably believes that such force is necessary to prevent an assault upon, or offer of personal violence to, him or another then in the dwelling, or (2) He reasonably believes that such force is necessary to prevent the commission of a felony in the dwelling. (b) In no case shall any act involving the use of force justified under this Section give rise to any claim or liability brought by or on behalf of any person acting within the definition of "aggressor" set forth in Section 7‑4 of this Article, or the estate, spouse, or other family member of such a person, against the person or estate of the person using such justified force, unless the use of force involves willful or wanton misconduct. (Source: P.A. 93‑832, eff. 7‑28‑04.)(720 ILCS 5/7‑3) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑3)Sec. 7‑3. Use of force in defense of other property.(a) A person is justified in the use of force against another when and to the extent that he reasonably believes that such conduct is necessary to prevent or terminate such other's trespass on or other tortious or criminal interference with either real property (other than a dwelling) or personal property, lawfully in his possession or in the possession of another who is a member of his immediate family or household or of a person whose property he has a legal duty to protect. However, he is justified in the use of force which is intended or likely to cause death or great bodily harm only if he reasonably believes that such force is necessary to prevent the commission of a forcible felony.(b) In no case shall any act involving the use of force justified under this Section give rise to any claim or liability brought by or on behalf of any person acting within the definition of "aggressor" set forth in Section 7‑4 of this Article, or the estate, spouse, or other family member of such a person, against the person or estate of the person using such justified force, unless the use of force involves willful or wanton misconduct.(Source: P.A. 93‑832, eff. 7‑28‑04.) (720 ILCS 5/7‑4) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑4) Sec. 7‑4. Use of force by aggressor. The justification described in the preceding Sections of this Article is not available to a person who: (a) Is attempting to commit, committing, or escaping after the commission of, a forcible felony; or (b) Initially provokes the use of force against himself, with the intent to use such force as an excuse to inflict bodily harm upon the assailant; or (c) Otherwise initially provokes the use of force against himself, unless: (1) Such force is so great that he reasonably believes that he is in imminent danger of death or great bodily harm, and that he has exhausted every reasonable means to escape such danger other than the use of force which is likely to cause death or great bodily harm to the assailant; or (2) In good faith, he withdraws from physical contact with the assailant and indicates clearly to the assailant that he desires to withdraw and terminate the use of force, but the assailant continues or resumes the use of force. (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)(720 ILCS 5/7‑5) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑5) Sec. 7‑5.Peace officer's use of force in making arrest.(a) A peace officer, or any person whom he has summoned or directed to assist him, need not retreat or desist from efforts to make a lawful arrest because of resistance or threatened resistance to the arrest. He is justified in the use of any force which he reasonably believes to be necessary to effect the arrest and of any force which he reasonably believes to be necessary to defend himself or another from bodily harm while making the arrest. However, he is justified in using force likely to cause death or great bodily harm only when he reasonably believes that such force is necessary to prevent death or great bodily harm to himself or such other person, or when he reasonably believes both that: (1) Such force is necessary to prevent the arrest from being defeated by resistance or escape; and (2) The person to be arrested has committed or attempted a forcible felony which involves the infliction or threatened infliction of great bodily harm or is attempting to escape by use of a deadly weapon, or otherwise indicates that he will endanger human life or inflict great bodily harm unless arrested without delay. (b) A peace officer making an arrest pursuant to an invalid warrant is justified in the use of any force which he would be justified in using if the warrant were valid, unless he knows that the warrant is invalid. (Source: P.A. 84‑1426.)(720 ILCS 5/7‑6) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑6) Sec. 7‑6. Private person's use of force in making arrest. (a) A private person who makes, or assists another private person in making a lawful arrest is justified in the use of any force which he would be justified in using if he were summoned or directed by a peace officer to make such arrest, except that he is justified in the use of force likely to cause death or great bodily harm only when he reasonably believes that such force is necessary to prevent death or great bodily harm to himself or another. (b) A private person who is summoned or directed by a peace officer to assist in making an arrest which is unlawful, is justified in the use of any force which he would be justified in using if the arrest were lawful, unless he knows that the arrest is unlawful. (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)(720 ILCS 5/7‑7) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑7) Sec. 7‑7.Private person's use of force in resisting arrest.A person is not authorized to use force to resist an arrest which he knows is being made either by a peace officer or by a private person summoned and directed by a peace officer to make the arrest, even if he believes that the arrest is unlawful and the arrest in fact is unlawful. (Source: P.A. 86‑1475.)(720 ILCS 5/7‑8) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑8) Sec. 7‑8. Force likely to cause death or great bodily harm. (a) Force which is likely to cause death or great bodily harm, within the meaning of Sections 7‑5 and 7‑6 includes:(1) The firing of a firearm in the direction of the person to be arrested, even though no intent exists to kill or inflict great bodily harm; and(2) The firing of a firearm at a vehicle in which the person to be arrested is riding. (b) A peace officer's discharge of a firearm using ammunition designed to disable or control an individual without creating the likelihood of death or great bodily harm shall not be considered force likely to cause death or great bodily harm within the meaning of Sections 7‑5 and 7‑6. (Source: P.A. 90‑138, eff. 1‑1‑98.)(720 ILCS 5/7‑9) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑9) Sec. 7‑9. Use of force to prevent escape. (a) A peace officer or other person who has an arrested person in his custody is justified in the use of such force to prevent the escape of the arrested person from custody as he would be justified in using if he were arresting such person. (b) A guard or other peace officer is justified in the use of force, including force likely to cause death or great bodily harm, which he reasonably believes to be necessary to prevent the escape from a penal institution of a person whom the officer reasonably believes to be lawfully detained in such institution under sentence for an offense or awaiting trial or commitment for an offense. (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)(720 ILCS 5/7‑10) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑10) Sec. 7‑10.Execution of death sentence. A public officer who, in the exercise of his official duty, puts a person to death pursuant to a sentence of a court of competent jurisdiction, is justified if he acts in accordance with the sentence pronounced and the law prescribing the procedure for execution of a death sentence. (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)(720 ILCS 5/7‑11) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑11) Sec. 7‑11. Compulsion.(a) A person is not guilty of an offense, other than an offense punishable with death, by reason of conduct that he or she performs under the compulsion of threat or menace of the imminent infliction of death or great bodily harm, if he or she reasonably believes death or great bodily harm will be inflicted upon him or her, or upon his or her spouse or child, if he or she does not perform that conduct. (b) A married woman is not entitled, by reason of the presence of her husband, to any presumption of compulsion or to any defense of compulsion, except that stated in subsection (a). (Source: P.A. 96‑710, eff. 1‑1‑10.) (720 ILCS 5/7‑12) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑12) Sec. 7‑12.Entrapment. A person is not guilty of an offense if his or her conduct is incited or induced by a public officer or employee, or agent of either, for the purpose of obtaining evidence for the prosecution of that person. However, this Section is inapplicable if the person was pre‑disposed to commit the offense and the public officer or employee, or agent of either, merely affords to that person the opportunity or facility for committing an offense. (Source: P.A. 89‑332, eff. 1‑1‑96.)(720 ILCS 5/7‑13) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑13) Sec. 7‑13.Necessity. Conduct which would otherwise be an offense is justifiable by reason of necessity if the accused was without blame in occasioning or developing the situation and reasonably believed such conduct was necessary to avoid a public or private injury greater than the injury which might reasonably result from his own conduct. (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)(720 ILCS 5/7‑14) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑14) Sec. 7‑14.Affirmative defense.A defense of justifiable use of force, or of exoneration, based on the provisions of this Article is an affirmative defense. (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)
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  •       (720 ILCS 5/Art. 7 heading)
    ARTICLE 7. JUSTIFIABLE USE OF FORCE; EXONERATION

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑1)(from Ch. 38, par. 7‑1)
        Sec. 7‑1. Use of force in defense of person.
        (a) A person is justified in the use of force against another when and to the extent that he reasonably believes that such conduct is necessary to defend himself or another against such other's imminent use of unlawful force. However, he is justified in the use of force which is intended or likely to cause death or great bodily harm only if he reasonably believes that such force is necessary to prevent imminent death or great bodily harm to himself or another, or the commission of a forcible felony.
        (b) In no case shall any act involving the use of force justified under this Section give rise to any claim or liability brought by or on behalf of any person acting within the definition of "aggressor" set forth in Section 7‑4 of this Article, or the estate, spouse, or other family member of such a person, against the person or estate of the person using such justified force, unless the use of force involves willful or wanton misconduct.
    (Source: P.A. 93‑832, eff. 7‑28‑04.)

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑2) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑2)
        Sec. 7‑2. Use of force in defense of dwelling.
        (a) A person is justified in the use of force against another when and to the extent that he reasonably believes that such conduct is necessary to prevent or terminate such other's unlawful entry into or attack upon a dwelling. However, he is justified in the use of force which is intended or likely to cause death or great bodily harm only if:
            (1) The entry is made or attempted in a violent,
         riotous, or tumultuous manner, and he reasonably believes that such force is necessary to prevent an assault upon, or offer of personal violence to, him or another then in the dwelling, or
            (2) He reasonably believes that such force is
         necessary to prevent the commission of a felony in the dwelling.
        (b) In no case shall any act involving the use of force justified under this Section give rise to any claim or liability brought by or on behalf of any person acting within the definition of "aggressor" set forth in Section 7‑4 of this Article, or the estate, spouse, or other family member of such a person, against the person or estate of the person using such justified force, unless the use of force involves willful or wanton misconduct.
    (Source: P.A. 93‑832, eff. 7‑28‑04.)

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑3) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑3)
        Sec. 7‑3. Use of force in defense of other property.
        (a) A person is justified in the use of force against another when and to the extent that he reasonably believes that such conduct is necessary to prevent or terminate such other's trespass on or other tortious or criminal interference with either real property (other than a dwelling) or personal property, lawfully in his possession or in the possession of another who is a member of his immediate family or household or of a person whose property he has a legal duty to protect. However, he is justified in the use of force which is intended or likely to cause death or great bodily harm only if he reasonably believes that such force is necessary to prevent the commission of a forcible felony.
        (b) In no case shall any act involving the use of force justified under this Section give rise to any claim or liability brought by or on behalf of any person acting within the definition of "aggressor" set forth in Section 7‑4 of this Article, or the estate, spouse, or other family member of such a person, against the person or estate of the person using such justified force, unless the use of force involves willful or wanton misconduct.
    (Source: P.A. 93‑832, eff. 7‑28‑04.)

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑4) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑4)
        Sec. 7‑4. Use of force by aggressor.
        The justification described in the preceding Sections of this Article is not available to a person who:
        (a) Is attempting to commit, committing, or escaping after the commission of, a forcible felony; or
        (b) Initially provokes the use of force against himself, with the intent to use such force as an excuse to inflict bodily harm upon the assailant; or
        (c) Otherwise initially provokes the use of force against himself, unless:
            (1) Such force is so great that he reasonably believes that he is in imminent danger of death or great bodily harm, and that he has exhausted every reasonable means to escape such danger other than the use of force which is likely to cause death or great bodily harm to the assailant; or
            (2) In good faith, he withdraws from physical contact with the assailant and indicates clearly to the assailant that he desires to withdraw and terminate the use of force, but the assailant continues or resumes the use of force.
    (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑5) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑5)
        Sec. 7‑5. Peace officer's use of force in making arrest. (a) A peace officer, or any person whom he has summoned or directed to assist him, need not retreat or desist from efforts to make a lawful arrest because of resistance or threatened resistance to the arrest. He is justified in the use of any force which he reasonably believes to be necessary to effect the arrest and of any force which he reasonably believes to be necessary to defend himself or another from bodily harm while making the arrest. However, he is justified in using force likely to cause death or great bodily harm only when he reasonably believes that such force is necessary to prevent death or great bodily harm to himself or such other person, or when he reasonably believes both that:
        (1) Such force is necessary to prevent the arrest from being defeated by resistance or escape; and
        (2) The person to be arrested has committed or attempted a forcible felony which involves the infliction or threatened infliction of great bodily harm or is attempting to escape by use of a deadly weapon, or otherwise indicates that he will endanger human life or inflict great bodily harm unless arrested without delay.
        (b) A peace officer making an arrest pursuant to an invalid warrant is justified in the use of any force which he would be justified in using if the warrant were valid, unless he knows that the warrant is invalid.
    (Source: P.A. 84‑1426.)

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑6) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑6)
        Sec. 7‑6. Private person's use of force in making arrest.
        (a) A private person who makes, or assists another private person in making a lawful arrest is justified in the use of any force which he would be justified in using if he were summoned or directed by a peace officer to make such arrest, except that he is justified in the use of force likely to cause death or great bodily harm only when he reasonably believes that such force is necessary to prevent death or great bodily harm to himself or another.
        (b) A private person who is summoned or directed by a peace officer to assist in making an arrest which is unlawful, is justified in the use of any force which he would be justified in using if the arrest were lawful, unless he knows that the arrest is unlawful.
    (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑7) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑7)
        Sec. 7‑7. Private person's use of force in resisting arrest. A person is not authorized to use force to resist an arrest which he knows is being made either by a peace officer or by a private person summoned and directed by a peace officer to make the arrest, even if he believes that the arrest is unlawful and the arrest in fact is unlawful.
    (Source: P.A. 86‑1475.)

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑8) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑8)
        Sec. 7‑8. Force likely to cause death or great bodily harm.
        (a) Force which is likely to cause death or great bodily harm, within the meaning of Sections 7‑5 and 7‑6 includes:
            (1) The firing of a firearm in the direction of the
         person to be arrested, even though no intent exists to kill or inflict great bodily harm; and
            (2) The firing of a firearm at a vehicle in which
         the person to be arrested is riding.
        (b) A peace officer's discharge of a firearm using ammunition designed to disable or control an individual without creating the likelihood of death or great bodily harm shall not be considered force likely to cause death or great bodily harm within the meaning of Sections 7‑5 and 7‑6.
    (Source: P.A. 90‑138, eff. 1‑1‑98.)

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑9) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑9)
        Sec. 7‑9. Use of force to prevent escape.
        (a) A peace officer or other person who has an arrested person in his custody is justified in the use of such force to prevent the escape of the arrested person from custody as he would be justified in using if he were arresting such person.
        (b) A guard or other peace officer is justified in the use of force, including force likely to cause death or great bodily harm, which he reasonably believes to be necessary to prevent the escape from a penal institution of a person whom the officer reasonably believes to be lawfully detained in such institution under sentence for an offense or awaiting trial or commitment for an offense.
    (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑10) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑10)
        Sec. 7‑10. Execution of death sentence.
        A public officer who, in the exercise of his official duty, puts a person to death pursuant to a sentence of a court of competent jurisdiction, is justified if he acts in accordance with the sentence pronounced and the law prescribing the procedure for execution of a death sentence.
    (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑11)(from Ch. 38, par. 7‑11)
        Sec. 7‑11. Compulsion.
        (a) A person is not guilty of an offense, other than an offense punishable with death, by reason of conduct that he or she performs under the compulsion of threat or menace of the imminent infliction of death or great bodily harm, if he or she reasonably believes death or great bodily harm will be inflicted upon him or her, or upon his or her spouse or child, if he or she does not perform that conduct.
        (b) A married woman is not entitled, by reason of the presence of her husband, to any presumption of compulsion or to any defense of compulsion, except that stated in subsection (a).
    (Source: P.A. 96‑710, eff. 1‑1‑10.)

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑12) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑12)
        Sec. 7‑12. Entrapment.
        A person is not guilty of an offense if his or her conduct is incited or induced by a public officer or employee, or agent of either, for the purpose of obtaining evidence for the prosecution of that person. However, this Section is inapplicable if the person was pre‑disposed to commit the offense and the public officer or employee, or agent of either, merely affords to that person the opportunity or facility for committing an offense.
    (Source: P.A. 89‑332, eff. 1‑1‑96.)

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑13) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑13)
        Sec. 7‑13. Necessity.
        Conduct which would otherwise be an offense is justifiable by reason of necessity if the accused was without blame in occasioning or developing the situation and reasonably believed such conduct was necessary to avoid a public or private injury greater than the injury which might reasonably result from his own conduct.
    (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)

        (720 ILCS 5/7‑14) (from Ch. 38, par. 7‑14)
        Sec. 7‑14. Affirmative defense. A defense of justifiable use of force, or of exoneration, based on the provisions of this Article is an affirmative defense.
    (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)

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