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ILLINOIS STATUTES AND CODES

Part 6 - Pleading

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(735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 6 heading) Part 6.Pleading(735 ILCS 5/2‑601) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑601) Sec. 2‑601.Substance of pleadings.In all actions, pleadings shall be as specified in Article II of this Act and the rules. This section does not affect in any way the substantial allegations of fact necessary to state any cause of action. (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑602) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑602) Sec. 2‑602.Designation and order of pleadings.The first pleading by the plaintiff shall be designated a complaint. The first pleading by the defendant shall be designated an answer. If new matter by way of defense is pleaded in the answer, a reply shall be filed by the plaintiff, but the filing of a reply is not an admission of the legal sufficiency of the new matter. Further pleadings may be permitted as required by the court. (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑603) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑603) Sec. 2‑603.Form of pleadings.(a) All pleadings shall contain a plain and concise statement of the pleader's cause of action, counterclaim, defense, or reply. (b) Each separate cause of action upon which a separate recovery might be had shall be stated in a separate count or counterclaim, as the case may be and each count, counterclaim, defense or reply, shall be separately pleaded, designated and numbered, and each shall be divided into paragraphs numbered consecutively, each paragraph containing, as nearly as may be, a separate allegation. (c) Pleadings shall be liberally construed with a view to doing substantial justice between the parties. (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑604) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑604) Sec. 2‑604.Prayer for relief.Every count in every complaint and counterclaim shall contain specific prayers for the relief to which the pleader deems himself or herself entitled except that in actions for injury to the person, no ad damnum may be pleaded except to the minimum extent necessary to comply with the circuit rules of assignment where the claim is filed. Relief may be requested in the alternative. Prayers for relief which the allegations of the pleadings do not sustain may be objected to on motion or in the answering pleading. In actions for injury to the person, any complaint filed which contains an ad damnum, except to the minimum extent necessary to comply with the circuit rules of assignment where the claim is filed, shall, on motion of a defendant or on the court's own motion, be dismissed without prejudice. Except in case of default, the prayer for relief does not limit the relief obtainable, but where other relief is sought the court shall, by proper orders, and upon terms that may be just, protect the adverse party against prejudice by reason of surprise. In case of default, if relief is sought, whether by amendment, counterclaim, or otherwise, beyond that prayed in the pleading to which the party is in default, notice shall be given the defaulted party as provided by rule. Nothing in this Section shall be construed as prohibiting the defendant from requesting of the plaintiff by interrogatory the amount of damages which will be sought. (Source: P.A. 93‑387, eff. 7‑25‑03.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑604.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑604.1) (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89‑7, which has been held unconstitutional) Sec. 2‑604.1.Pleading of punitive damages.In all actions on account of bodily injury or physical damage to property, based on negligence, or product liability based on any theory or doctrine, where punitive damages are permitted no complaint shall be filed containing a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages. However, a plaintiff may, pursuant to a pretrial motion and after a hearing before the court, amend the complaint to include a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages. The court shall allow the motion to amend the complaint if the plaintiff establishes at such hearing a reasonable likelihood of proving facts at trial sufficient to support an award of punitive damages. Any motion to amend the complaint to include a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages shall be made not later than 30 days after the close of discovery. A prayer for relief added pursuant to this Section shall not be barred by lapse of time under any statute prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted if the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original pleading was filed. (Source: P.A. 89‑7, eff. 3‑9‑95.) (Text of Section WITHOUT the changes made by P.A. 89‑7, which has been held unconstitutional) Sec. 2‑604.1.Pleading of punitive damages.In all actions on account of bodily injury or physical damage to property, based on negligence, or product liability based on strict tort liability, where punitive damages are permitted no complaint shall be filed containing a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages. However, a plaintiff may, pursuant to a pretrial motion and after a hearing before the court, amend the complaint to include a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages. The court shall allow the motion to amend the complaint if the plaintiff establishes at such hearing a reasonable likelihood of proving facts at trial sufficient to support an award of punitive damages. Any motion to amend the complaint to include a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages shall be made not later than 30 days after the close of discovery. A prayer for relief added pursuant to this Section shall not be barred by lapse of time under any statute prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted if the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original pleading was filed. (Source: P.A. 84‑1431.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑605) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑605) Sec. 2‑605.Verification of pleadings.(a) Any pleading, although not required to be sworn to, may be verified by the oath of the party filing it or of any other person or persons having knowledge of the facts pleaded. Corporations may verify by the oath of any officer or agent having knowledge of the facts. If any pleading is so verified, every subsequent pleading must also be verified, unless verification is excused by the court. In pleadings which are so verified, the several matters stated shall be stated positively or upon information and belief only, according to the fact. Verified allegations do not constitute evidence except by way of admission. (b) The allegation of the execution or assignment of any written instrument is admitted unless denied in a pleading verified by oath, except in cases in which verification is excused by the court. If the party making the denial is not the person alleged to have executed or assigned the instrument, the denial may be made on the information and belief of that party. (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑606) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑606) Sec. 2‑606.Exhibits.If a claim or defense is founded upon a written instrument, a copy thereof, or of so much of the same as is relevant, must be attached to the pleading as an exhibit or recited therein, unless the pleader attaches to his or her pleading an affidavit stating facts showing that the instrument is not accessible to him or her. In pleading any written instrument a copy thereof may be attached to the pleading as an exhibit. In either case the exhibit constitutes a part of the pleading for all purposes. (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑607) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑607) Sec. 2‑607.Bills of particulars.(a) Within the time a party is to respond to a pleading, that party may, if allegations are so wanting in details that the responding party should be entitled to a bill of particulars, file and serve a notice demanding it. The notice shall point out specifically the defects complained of or the details desired. The pleader shall have 28 days to file and serve the bill of particulars, and the party who requested the bill shall have 28 days to plead after being served with the bill. (b) If the pleader does not file and serve a bill of particulars within 28 days of the demand, or if the bill of particulars delivered is insufficient, the court may, on motion and in its discretion, strike the pleading, allow further time to furnish the bill of particulars or require a more particular bill to be filed and served. (c) If a bill of particulars, in an action based on a contract, contains the statement of items of indebtedness and is verified by oath, the items thereof are admitted except in so far as the opposite party files an affidavit specifically denying them, and as to each item denied states the facts upon which the denial is based, unless the affidavit is excused by the court. (d) If the party on whom a demand for a bill of particulars has been made believes that the party demanding it is not entitled to the particulars asked for, he or she may move the court that the demand be denied or modified. (Source: P.A. 86‑646.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑608) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑608) Sec. 2‑608.Counterclaims.(a) Any claim by one or more defendants against one or more plaintiffs, or against one or more codefendants, whether in the nature of setoff, recoupment, cross claim or otherwise, and whether in tort or contract, for liquidated or unliquidated damages, or for other relief, may be pleaded as a cross claim in any action, and when so pleaded shall be called a counterclaim. (b) The counterclaim shall be a part of the answer, and shall be designated as a counterclaim. Service of process on parties already before the court is not necessary. (c) Every counterclaim shall be pleaded in the same manner and with the same particularity as a complaint, and shall be complete in itself, but allegations set forth in other parts of the answer may be incorporated by specific reference instead of being repeated. (d) An answer to a counterclaim and pleadings subsequent thereto shall be filed as in the case of a complaint and with like designation and effect. (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑609) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑609) Sec. 2‑609.Supplemental pleadings.Supplemental pleadings, setting up matters which arise after the original pleadings are filed, may be filed within a reasonable time by either party by leave of court and upon terms. (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑610) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑610) Sec. 2‑610.Pleadings to be specific.(a) Every answer and subsequent pleading shall contain an explicit admission or denial of each allegation of the pleading to which it relates. (b) Every allegation, except allegations of damages, not explicitly denied is admitted, unless the party states in his or her pleading that he or she has no knowledge thereof sufficient to form a belief, and attaches an affidavit of the truth of the statement of want of knowledge, or unless the party has had no opportunity to deny. (c) Denials must not be evasive, but must fairly answer the substance of the allegation denied. (d) If a party wishes to raise an issue as to the amount of damages only, he or she may do so by stating in his or her pleading that he or she desires to contest only the amount of the damages. (Source: P.A. 83‑354.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑612) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑612) Sec. 2‑612.Insufficient pleadings.(a) If any pleading is insufficient in substance or form the court may order a fuller or more particular statement. If the pleadings do not sufficiently define the issues the court may order other pleadings prepared. (b) No pleading is bad in substance which contains such information as reasonably informs the opposite party of the nature of the claim or defense which he or she is called upon to meet. (c) All defects in pleadings, either in form or substance, not objected to in the trial court are waived. (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑613) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑613) Sec. 2‑613.Separate counts and defenses.(a) Parties may plead as many causes of action, counterclaims, defenses, and matters in reply as they may have, and each shall be separately designated and numbered. (b) When a party is in doubt as to which of two or more statements of fact is true, he or she may, regardless of consistency, state them in the alternative or hypothetically in the same or different counts or defenses. A bad alternative does not affect a good one. (c) Defenses to jurisdiction of the subject matter or in abatement or in bar may be pleaded together, without waiving any defense so pleaded, but the court may order defenses to jurisdiction of the subject matter or in abatement to be tried first. An answer containing only defenses to jurisdiction of the subject matter or in abatement does not constitute an admission of the facts alleged in the complaint, counterclaim or third‑party complaint. (d) The facts constituting any affirmative defense, such as payment, release, satisfaction, discharge, license, fraud, duress, estoppel, laches, statute of frauds, illegality, that the negligence of a complaining party contributed in whole or in part to the injury of which he complains, that an instrument or transaction is either void or voidable in point of law, or cannot be recovered upon by reason of any statute or by reason of nondelivery, want or failure of consideration in whole or in part, and any defense which by other affirmative matter seeks to avoid the legal effect of or defeat the cause of action set forth in the complaint, counterclaim, or third‑party complaint, in whole or in part, and any ground or defense, whether affirmative or not, which, if not expressly stated in the pleading, would be likely to take the opposite party by surprise, must be plainly set forth in the answer or reply. (Source: P.A. 84‑624.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑614) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑614) Sec. 2‑614.Joinder of causes of action and use of counterclaims.(a) Any plaintiff or plaintiffs may join any causes of action, against any defendant or defendants; and the defendant may set up in his or her answer any and all cross claims whatever, whether in the nature of recoupment, setoff or otherwise, which shall be designated counterclaims. (b) The court may, in its discretion, order separate trial of any causes of action, counterclaim or third‑party claim if it cannot be conveniently disposed of with the other issues in the case. Legal and equitable issues may be tried together if no jury is employed. (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑615) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑615) Sec. 2‑615.Motions with respect to pleadings.(a) All objections to pleadings shall be raised by motion. The motion shall point out specifically the defects complained of, and shall ask for appropriate relief, such as: that a pleading or portion thereof be stricken because substantially insufficient in law, or that the action be dismissed, or that a pleading be made more definite and certain in a specified particular, or that designated immaterial matter be stricken out, or that necessary parties be added, or that designated misjoined parties be dismissed, and so forth. (b) If a pleading or a division thereof is objected to by a motion to dismiss or for judgment or to strike out the pleading, because it is substantially insufficient in law, the motion must specify wherein the pleading or division thereof is insufficient. (c) Upon motions based upon defects in pleadings, substantial defects in prior pleadings may be considered. (d) After rulings on motions, the court may enter appropriate orders either to permit or require pleading over or amending or to terminate the litigation in whole or in part. (e) Any party may seasonably move for judgment on the pleadings. (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑616) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑616) Sec. 2‑616.Amendments. (a) At any time before final judgment amendments may be allowed on just and reasonable terms, introducing any party who ought to have been joined as plaintiff or defendant, dismissing any party, changing the cause of action or defense or adding new causes of action or defenses, and in any matter, either of form or substance, in any process, pleading, bill of particulars or proceedings, which may enable the plaintiff to sustain the claim for which it was intended to be brought or the defendant to make a defense or assert a cross claim. (b) The cause of action, cross claim or defense set up in any amended pleading shall not be barred by lapse of time under any statute or contract prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted, if the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original pleading was filed, and if it shall appear from the original and amended pleadings that the cause of action asserted, or the defense or cross claim interposed in the amended pleading grew out of the same transaction or occurrence set up in the original pleading, even though the original pleading was defective in that it failed to allege the performance of some act or the existence of some fact or some other matter which is a necessary condition precedent to the right of recovery or defense asserted, if the condition precedent has in fact been performed, and for the purpose of preserving the cause of action, cross claim or defense set up in the amended pleading, and for that purpose only, an amendment to any pleading shall be held to relate back to the date of the filing of the original pleading so amended. (c) A pleading may be amended at any time, before or after judgment, to conform the pleadings to the proofs, upon terms as to costs and continuance that may be just. (d) A cause of action against a person not originally named a defendant is not barred by lapse of time under any statute or contract prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted, if all the following terms and conditions are met: (1) the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original action was commenced; (2) the person, within the time that the action might have been brought or the right asserted against him or her plus the time for service permitted under Supreme Court Rule 103(b), received such notice of the commencement of the action that the person will not be prejudiced in maintaining a defense on the merits and knew or should have known that, but for a mistake concerning the identity of the proper party, the action would have been brought against him or her; and (3) it appears from the original and amended pleadings that the cause of action asserted in the amended pleading grew out of the same transaction or occurrence set up in the original pleading, even though the original pleading was defective in that it failed to allege the performance of some act or the existence of some fact or some other matter which is a necessary condition precedent to the right of recovery when the condition precedent has in fact been performed, and even though the person was not named originally as a defendant. For the purpose of preserving the cause of action under those conditions, an amendment adding the person as a defendant relates back to the date of the filing of the original pleading so amended. (e) A cause of action against a beneficiary of a land trust not originally named a defendant is not barred by lapse of time under any statute or contract prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted, if all the following terms and conditions are met: (1) the cause of action arises from the ownership, use or possession of real estate, record title whereto is held by a land trustee; (2) the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original action was commenced; (3) the land trustee of record is named as a defendant; and (4) the plaintiff proceeds with reasonable diligence subsequent to the commencement of the action to serve process upon the land trustee, to determine the identity of the beneficiary, and to amend the complaint to name the beneficiary as a defendant. (f) The changes made by this amendatory Act of the 92nd General Assembly apply to all complaints filed on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act, and to complaints filed before the effective date of this amendatory Act if the limitation period has not ended before the effective date. (Source: P.A. 92‑116, eff. 1‑1‑02.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑617) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑617) Sec. 2‑617.Seeking wrong remedy not fatal.Where relief is sought and the court determines, on motion directed to the pleadings, or on motion for summary judgment or upon trial, that the plaintiff has pleaded or established facts which entitled the plaintiff to relief but that the plaintiff has sought the wrong remedy, the court shall permit the pleadings to be amended, on just and reasonable terms, and the court shall grant the relief to which the plaintiff is entitled on the amended pleadings or upon the evidence. In considering whether a proposed amendment is just and reasonable, the court shall consider the right of the defendant to assert additional defenses, to demand a trial by jury, to plead a counterclaim or third party complaint, and to order the plaintiff to take additional steps which were not required under the pleadings as previously filed. (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑618) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑618) Sec. 2‑618.Lost pleadings.If any pleading or paper filed in a cause has been lost or mislaid, the court may permit the filing of a copy authenticated by such affidavits as the court may require. (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑619) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑619) Sec. 2‑619. Involuntary dismissal based upon certain defects or defenses. (a) Defendant may, within the time for pleading, file a motion for dismissal of the action or for other appropriate relief upon any of the following grounds. If the grounds do not appear on the face of the pleading attacked the motion shall be supported by affidavit: (1) That the court does not have jurisdiction of the subject matter of the action, provided the defect cannot be removed by a transfer of the case to a court having jurisdiction. (2) That the plaintiff does not have legal capacity to sue or that the defendant does not have legal capacity to be sued. (3) That there is another action pending between the same parties for the same cause. (4) That the cause of action is barred by a prior judgment. (5) That the action was not commenced within the time limited by law. (6) That the claim set forth in the plaintiff's pleading has been released, satisfied of record, or discharged in bankruptcy. (7) That the claim asserted is unenforceable under the provisions of the Statute of Frauds. (8) That the claim asserted against defendant is unenforceable because of his or her minority or other disability. (9) That the claim asserted against defendant is barred by other affirmative matter avoiding the legal effect of or defeating the claim. (b) A similar motion may be made by any other party against whom a claim is asserted. (c) If, upon the hearing of the motion, the opposite party presents affidavits or other proof denying the facts alleged or establishing facts obviating the grounds of defect, the court may hear and determine the same and may grant or deny the motion. If a material and genuine disputed question of fact is raised the court may decide the motion upon the affidavits and evidence offered by the parties, or may deny the motion without prejudice to the right to raise the subject matter of the motion by answer and shall so deny it if the action is one in which a party is entitled to a trial by jury and a jury demand has been filed by the opposite party in apt time. (d) The raising of any of the foregoing matters by motion under this Section does not preclude the raising of them subsequently by answer unless the court has disposed of the motion on its merits; and a failure to raise any of them by motion does not preclude raising them by answer. (e) Pleading over after denial by the court of a motion under this Section is not a waiver of any error in the decision denying the motion. (f) The form and contents of and procedure relating to affidavits under this Section shall be as provided by rule. (Source: P.A. 83‑707.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑619.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑619.1) Sec. 2‑619.1.Combined motions.Motions with respect to pleadings under Section 2‑615, motions for involuntary dismissal or other relief under Section 2‑619, and motions for summary judgment under Section 2‑1005 may be filed together as a single motion in any combination. A combined motion, however, shall be in parts. Each part shall be limited to and shall specify that it is made under one of Sections 2‑615, 2‑619, or 2‑1005. Each part shall also clearly show the points or grounds relied upon under the Section upon which it is based. (Source: P.A. 86‑1156.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑620) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑620) Sec. 2‑620.Practice on motions.The form and contents of motions, notices regarding the same, hearings on motions, and all other matters of procedure relative thereto, shall be according to rules. (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)(735 ILCS 5/2‑621) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑621) (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89‑7, which has been held unconstitutional) Sec. 2‑621.Product liability actions. (a) In any product liability action based on any theory or doctrine commenced or maintained against a defendant or defendants other than the manufacturer, that party shall upon answering or otherwise pleading file an affidavit certifying the correct identity of the manufacturer of the product allegedly causing injury, death or damage. The commencement of a product liability action based on any theory or doctrine against such defendant or defendants shall toll the applicable statute of limitation and statute of repose relative to the defendant or defendants for purposes of asserting a strict liability in tort cause of action. (b) Once the plaintiff has filed a complaint against the manufacturer or manufacturers, and the manufacturer or manufacturers have or are required to have answered or otherwise pleaded, the court shall order the dismissal of a product liability action based on any theory or doctrine against the certifying defendant or defendants, provided the certifying defendant or defendants are not within the categories set forth in subsection (c) of this Section. Due diligence shall be exercised by the certifying defendant or defendants in providing the plaintiff with the correct identity of the manufacturer or manufacturers, and due diligence shall be exercised by the plaintiff in filing an action and obtaining jurisdiction over the manufacturer or manufacturers. The plaintiff may at any time subsequent to the dismissal move to vacate the order of dismissal and reinstate the certifying defendant or defendants, provided plaintiff can show one or more of the following:(1) That the applicable period of statute of limitation or statute of repose bars the assertion of a cause of action against the manufacturer or manufacturers of the product allegedly causing the injury, death or damage; or(2) That the identity of the manufacturer given to the plaintiff by the certifying defendant or defendants was incorrect. Once the correct identity of the manufacturer has been given by the certifying defendant or defendants the court shall again dismiss the certifying defendant or defendants; or(3) That the manufacturer no longer exists, cannot be subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State, or, despite due diligence, the manufacturer is not amenable to service of process; or(4) That the manufacturer is unable to satisfy any judgment as determined by the court; or(5) That the court determines that the manufacturer would be unable to satisfy a reasonable settlement or other agreement with plaintiff. (c) A court shall not enter a dismissal order relative to any certifying defendant or defendants other tha
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  •       (735 ILCS 5/Art. II Pt. 6 heading)
    Part 6. Pleading

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑601) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑601)
        Sec. 2‑601. Substance of pleadings. In all actions, pleadings shall be as specified in Article II of this Act and the rules. This section does not affect in any way the substantial allegations of fact necessary to state any cause of action.
    (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑602) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑602)
        Sec. 2‑602. Designation and order of pleadings. The first pleading by the plaintiff shall be designated a complaint. The first pleading by the defendant shall be designated an answer. If new matter by way of defense is pleaded in the answer, a reply shall be filed by the plaintiff, but the filing of a reply is not an admission of the legal sufficiency of the new matter. Further pleadings may be permitted as required by the court.
    (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑603) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑603)
        Sec. 2‑603. Form of pleadings. (a) All pleadings shall contain a plain and concise statement of the pleader's cause of action, counterclaim, defense, or reply.
        (b) Each separate cause of action upon which a separate recovery might be had shall be stated in a separate count or counterclaim, as the case may be and each count, counterclaim, defense or reply, shall be separately pleaded, designated and numbered, and each shall be divided into paragraphs numbered consecutively, each paragraph containing, as nearly as may be, a separate allegation.
        (c) Pleadings shall be liberally construed with a view to doing substantial justice between the parties.
    (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑604) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑604)
        Sec. 2‑604. Prayer for relief. Every count in every complaint and counterclaim shall contain specific prayers for the relief to which the pleader deems himself or herself entitled except that in actions for injury to the person, no ad damnum may be pleaded except to the minimum extent necessary to comply with the circuit rules of assignment where the claim is filed. Relief may be requested in the alternative. Prayers for relief which the allegations of the pleadings do not sustain may be objected to on motion or in the answering pleading. In actions for injury to the person, any complaint filed which contains an ad damnum, except to the minimum extent necessary to comply with the circuit rules of assignment where the claim is filed, shall, on motion of a defendant or on the court's own motion, be dismissed without prejudice. Except in case of default, the prayer for relief does not limit the relief obtainable, but where other relief is sought the court shall, by proper orders, and upon terms that may be just, protect the adverse party against prejudice by reason of surprise. In case of default, if relief is sought, whether by amendment, counterclaim, or otherwise, beyond that prayed in the pleading to which the party is in default, notice shall be given the defaulted party as provided by rule.
        Nothing in this Section shall be construed as prohibiting the defendant from requesting of the plaintiff by interrogatory the amount of damages which will be sought.
    (Source: P.A. 93‑387, eff. 7‑25‑03.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑604.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑604.1)
        (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89‑7, which has been held unconstitutional)
        Sec. 2‑604.1. Pleading of punitive damages. In all actions on account of bodily injury or physical damage to property, based on negligence, or product liability based on any theory or doctrine, where punitive damages are permitted no complaint shall be filed containing a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages. However, a plaintiff may, pursuant to a pretrial motion and after a hearing before the court, amend the complaint to include a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages. The court shall allow the motion to amend the complaint if the plaintiff establishes at such hearing a reasonable likelihood of proving facts at trial sufficient to support an award of punitive damages. Any motion to amend the complaint to include a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages shall be made not later than 30 days after the close of discovery. A prayer for relief added pursuant to this Section shall not be barred by lapse of time under any statute prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted if the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original pleading was filed.
    (Source: P.A. 89‑7, eff. 3‑9‑95.)
     
        (Text of Section WITHOUT the changes made by P.A. 89‑7, which has been held unconstitutional)
        Sec. 2‑604.1. Pleading of punitive damages. In all actions on account of bodily injury or physical damage to property, based on negligence, or product liability based on strict tort liability, where punitive damages are permitted no complaint shall be filed containing a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages. However, a plaintiff may, pursuant to a pretrial motion and after a hearing before the court, amend the complaint to include a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages. The court shall allow the motion to amend the complaint if the plaintiff establishes at such hearing a reasonable likelihood of proving facts at trial sufficient to support an award of punitive damages. Any motion to amend the complaint to include a prayer for relief seeking punitive damages shall be made not later than 30 days after the close of discovery. A prayer for relief added pursuant to this Section shall not be barred by lapse of time under any statute prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted if the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original pleading was filed.
    (Source: P.A. 84‑1431.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑605) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑605)
        Sec. 2‑605. Verification of pleadings. (a) Any pleading, although not required to be sworn to, may be verified by the oath of the party filing it or of any other person or persons having knowledge of the facts pleaded. Corporations may verify by the oath of any officer or agent having knowledge of the facts. If any pleading is so verified, every subsequent pleading must also be verified, unless verification is excused by the court. In pleadings which are so verified, the several matters stated shall be stated positively or upon information and belief only, according to the fact. Verified allegations do not constitute evidence except by way of admission.
        (b) The allegation of the execution or assignment of any written instrument is admitted unless denied in a pleading verified by oath, except in cases in which verification is excused by the court. If the party making the denial is not the person alleged to have executed or assigned the instrument, the denial may be made on the information and belief of that party.
    (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑606) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑606)
        Sec. 2‑606. Exhibits. If a claim or defense is founded upon a written instrument, a copy thereof, or of so much of the same as is relevant, must be attached to the pleading as an exhibit or recited therein, unless the pleader attaches to his or her pleading an affidavit stating facts showing that the instrument is not accessible to him or her. In pleading any written instrument a copy thereof may be attached to the pleading as an exhibit. In either case the exhibit constitutes a part of the pleading for all purposes.
    (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑607) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑607)
        Sec. 2‑607. Bills of particulars. (a) Within the time a party is to respond to a pleading, that party may, if allegations are so wanting in details that the responding party should be entitled to a bill of particulars, file and serve a notice demanding it. The notice shall point out specifically the defects complained of or the details desired. The pleader shall have 28 days to file and serve the bill of particulars, and the party who requested the bill shall have 28 days to plead after being served with the bill.
        (b) If the pleader does not file and serve a bill of particulars within 28 days of the demand, or if the bill of particulars delivered is insufficient, the court may, on motion and in its discretion, strike the pleading, allow further time to furnish the bill of particulars or require a more particular bill to be filed and served.
        (c) If a bill of particulars, in an action based on a contract, contains the statement of items of indebtedness and is verified by oath, the items thereof are admitted except in so far as the opposite party files an affidavit specifically denying them, and as to each item denied states the facts upon which the denial is based, unless the affidavit is excused by the court.
        (d) If the party on whom a demand for a bill of particulars has been made believes that the party demanding it is not entitled to the particulars asked for, he or she may move the court that the demand be denied or modified.
    (Source: P.A. 86‑646.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑608) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑608)
        Sec. 2‑608. Counterclaims. (a) Any claim by one or more defendants against one or more plaintiffs, or against one or more codefendants, whether in the nature of setoff, recoupment, cross claim or otherwise, and whether in tort or contract, for liquidated or unliquidated damages, or for other relief, may be pleaded as a cross claim in any action, and when so pleaded shall be called a counterclaim.
        (b) The counterclaim shall be a part of the answer, and shall be designated as a counterclaim. Service of process on parties already before the court is not necessary.
        (c) Every counterclaim shall be pleaded in the same manner and with the same particularity as a complaint, and shall be complete in itself, but allegations set forth in other parts of the answer may be incorporated by specific reference instead of being repeated.
        (d) An answer to a counterclaim and pleadings subsequent thereto shall be filed as in the case of a complaint and with like designation and effect.
    (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑609) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑609)
        Sec. 2‑609. Supplemental pleadings. Supplemental pleadings, setting up matters which arise after the original pleadings are filed, may be filed within a reasonable time by either party by leave of court and upon terms.
    (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑610) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑610)
        Sec. 2‑610. Pleadings to be specific. (a) Every answer and subsequent pleading shall contain an explicit admission or denial of each allegation of the pleading to which it relates.
        (b) Every allegation, except allegations of damages, not explicitly denied is admitted, unless the party states in his or her pleading that he or she has no knowledge thereof sufficient to form a belief, and attaches an affidavit of the truth of the statement of want of knowledge, or unless the party has had no opportunity to deny.
        (c) Denials must not be evasive, but must fairly answer the substance of the allegation denied.
        (d) If a party wishes to raise an issue as to the amount of damages only, he or she may do so by stating in his or her pleading that he or she desires to contest only the amount of the damages.
    (Source: P.A. 83‑354.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑612) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑612)
        Sec. 2‑612. Insufficient pleadings. (a) If any pleading is insufficient in substance or form the court may order a fuller or more particular statement. If the pleadings do not sufficiently define the issues the court may order other pleadings prepared.
        (b) No pleading is bad in substance which contains such information as reasonably informs the opposite party of the nature of the claim or defense which he or she is called upon to meet.
        (c) All defects in pleadings, either in form or substance, not objected to in the trial court are waived.
    (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑613) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑613)
        Sec. 2‑613. Separate counts and defenses. (a) Parties may plead as many causes of action, counterclaims, defenses, and matters in reply as they may have, and each shall be separately designated and numbered.
        (b) When a party is in doubt as to which of two or more statements of fact is true, he or she may, regardless of consistency, state them in the alternative or hypothetically in the same or different counts or defenses. A bad alternative does not affect a good one.
        (c) Defenses to jurisdiction of the subject matter or in abatement or in bar may be pleaded together, without waiving any defense so pleaded, but the court may order defenses to jurisdiction of the subject matter or in abatement to be tried first. An answer containing only defenses to jurisdiction of the subject matter or in abatement does not constitute an admission of the facts alleged in the complaint, counterclaim or third‑party complaint.
        (d) The facts constituting any affirmative defense, such as payment, release, satisfaction, discharge, license, fraud, duress, estoppel, laches, statute of frauds, illegality, that the negligence of a complaining party contributed in whole or in part to the injury of which he complains, that an instrument or transaction is either void or voidable in point of law, or cannot be recovered upon by reason of any statute or by reason of nondelivery, want or failure of consideration in whole or in part, and any defense which by other affirmative matter seeks to avoid the legal effect of or defeat the cause of action set forth in the complaint, counterclaim, or third‑party complaint, in whole or in part, and any ground or defense, whether affirmative or not, which, if not expressly stated in the pleading, would be likely to take the opposite party by surprise, must be plainly set forth in the answer or reply.
    (Source: P.A. 84‑624.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑614) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑614)
        Sec. 2‑614. Joinder of causes of action and use of counterclaims. (a) Any plaintiff or plaintiffs may join any causes of action, against any defendant or defendants; and the defendant may set up in his or her answer any and all cross claims whatever, whether in the nature of recoupment, setoff or otherwise, which shall be designated counterclaims.
        (b) The court may, in its discretion, order separate trial of any causes of action, counterclaim or third‑party claim if it cannot be conveniently disposed of with the other issues in the case. Legal and equitable issues may be tried together if no jury is employed.
    (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑615) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑615)
        Sec. 2‑615. Motions with respect to pleadings. (a) All objections to pleadings shall be raised by motion. The motion shall point out specifically the defects complained of, and shall ask for appropriate relief, such as: that a pleading or portion thereof be stricken because substantially insufficient in law, or that the action be dismissed, or that a pleading be made more definite and certain in a specified particular, or that designated immaterial matter be stricken out, or that necessary parties be added, or that designated misjoined parties be dismissed, and so forth.
        (b) If a pleading or a division thereof is objected to by a motion to dismiss or for judgment or to strike out the pleading, because it is substantially insufficient in law, the motion must specify wherein the pleading or division thereof is insufficient.
        (c) Upon motions based upon defects in pleadings, substantial defects in prior pleadings may be considered.
        (d) After rulings on motions, the court may enter appropriate orders either to permit or require pleading over or amending or to terminate the litigation in whole or in part.
        (e) Any party may seasonably move for judgment on the pleadings.
    (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑616) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑616)
        Sec. 2‑616. Amendments.
        (a) At any time before final judgment amendments may be allowed on just and reasonable terms, introducing any party who ought to have been joined as plaintiff or defendant, dismissing any party, changing the cause of action or defense or adding new causes of action or defenses, and in any matter, either of form or substance, in any process, pleading, bill of particulars or proceedings, which may enable the plaintiff to sustain the claim for which it was intended to be brought or the defendant to make a defense or assert a cross claim.
        (b) The cause of action, cross claim or defense set up in any amended pleading shall not be barred by lapse of time under any statute or contract prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted, if the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original pleading was filed, and if it shall appear from the original and amended pleadings that the cause of action asserted, or the defense or cross claim interposed in the amended pleading grew out of the same transaction or occurrence set up in the original pleading, even though the original pleading was defective in that it failed to allege the performance of some act or the existence of some fact or some other matter which is a necessary condition precedent to the right of recovery or defense asserted, if the condition precedent has in fact been performed, and for the purpose of preserving the cause of action, cross claim or defense set up in the amended pleading, and for that purpose only, an amendment to any pleading shall be held to relate back to the date of the filing of the original pleading so amended.
        (c) A pleading may be amended at any time, before or after judgment, to conform the pleadings to the proofs, upon terms as to costs and continuance that may be just.
        (d) A cause of action against a person not originally named a defendant is not barred by lapse of time under any statute or contract prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted, if all the following terms and conditions are met: (1) the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original action was commenced; (2) the person, within the time that the action might have been brought or the right asserted against him or her plus the time for service permitted under Supreme Court Rule 103(b), received such notice of the commencement of the action that the person will not be prejudiced in maintaining a defense on the merits and knew or should have known that, but for a mistake concerning the identity of the proper party, the action would have been brought against him or her; and (3) it appears from the original and amended pleadings that the cause of action asserted in the amended pleading grew out of the same transaction or occurrence set up in the original pleading, even though the original pleading was defective in that it failed to allege the performance of some act or the existence of some fact or some other matter which is a necessary condition precedent to the right of recovery when the condition precedent has in fact been performed, and even though the person was not named originally as a defendant. For the purpose of preserving the cause of action under those conditions, an amendment adding the person as a defendant relates back to the date of the filing of the original pleading so amended.
        (e) A cause of action against a beneficiary of a land trust not originally named a defendant is not barred by lapse of time under any statute or contract prescribing or limiting the time within which an action may be brought or right asserted, if all the following terms and conditions are met: (1) the cause of action arises from the ownership, use or possession of real estate, record title whereto is held by a land trustee; (2) the time prescribed or limited had not expired when the original action was commenced; (3) the land trustee of record is named as a defendant; and (4) the plaintiff proceeds with reasonable diligence subsequent to the commencement of the action to serve process upon the land trustee, to determine the identity of the beneficiary, and to amend the complaint to name the beneficiary as a defendant.
        (f) The changes made by this amendatory Act of the 92nd General Assembly apply to all complaints filed on or after the effective date of this amendatory Act, and to complaints filed before the effective date of this amendatory Act if the limitation period has not ended before the effective date.
    (Source: P.A. 92‑116, eff. 1‑1‑02.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑617) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑617)
        Sec. 2‑617. Seeking wrong remedy not fatal. Where relief is sought and the court determines, on motion directed to the pleadings, or on motion for summary judgment or upon trial, that the plaintiff has pleaded or established facts which entitled the plaintiff to relief but that the plaintiff has sought the wrong remedy, the court shall permit the pleadings to be amended, on just and reasonable terms, and the court shall grant the relief to which the plaintiff is entitled on the amended pleadings or upon the evidence. In considering whether a proposed amendment is just and reasonable, the court shall consider the right of the defendant to assert additional defenses, to demand a trial by jury, to plead a counterclaim or third party complaint, and to order the plaintiff to take additional steps which were not required under the pleadings as previously filed.
    (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑618) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑618)
        Sec. 2‑618. Lost pleadings. If any pleading or paper filed in a cause has been lost or mislaid, the court may permit the filing of a copy authenticated by such affidavits as the court may require.
    (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑619) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑619)
        Sec. 2‑619. Involuntary dismissal based upon certain defects or defenses. (a) Defendant may, within the time for pleading, file a motion for dismissal of the action or for other appropriate relief upon any of the following grounds. If the grounds do not appear on the face of the pleading attacked the motion shall be supported by affidavit:
        (1) That the court does not have jurisdiction of the subject matter of the action, provided the defect cannot be removed by a transfer of the case to a court having jurisdiction.
        (2) That the plaintiff does not have legal capacity to sue or that the defendant does not have legal capacity to be sued.
        (3) That there is another action pending between the same parties for the same cause.
        (4) That the cause of action is barred by a prior judgment.
        (5) That the action was not commenced within the time limited by law.
        (6) That the claim set forth in the plaintiff's pleading has been released, satisfied of record, or discharged in bankruptcy.
        (7) That the claim asserted is unenforceable under the provisions of the Statute of Frauds.
        (8) That the claim asserted against defendant is unenforceable because of his or her minority or other disability.
        (9) That the claim asserted against defendant is barred by other affirmative matter avoiding the legal effect of or defeating the claim.
        (b) A similar motion may be made by any other party against whom a claim is asserted.
        (c) If, upon the hearing of the motion, the opposite party presents affidavits or other proof denying the facts alleged or establishing facts obviating the grounds of defect, the court may hear and determine the same and may grant or deny the motion. If a material and genuine disputed question of fact is raised the court may decide the motion upon the affidavits and evidence offered by the parties, or may deny the motion without prejudice to the right to raise the subject matter of the motion by answer and shall so deny it if the action is one in which a party is entitled to a trial by jury and a jury demand has been filed by the opposite party in apt time.
        (d) The raising of any of the foregoing matters by motion under this Section does not preclude the raising of them subsequently by answer unless the court has disposed of the motion on its merits; and a failure to raise any of them by motion does not preclude raising them by answer.
        (e) Pleading over after denial by the court of a motion under this Section is not a waiver of any error in the decision denying the motion.
        (f) The form and contents of and procedure relating to affidavits under this Section shall be as provided by rule.
    (Source: P.A. 83‑707.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑619.1) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑619.1)
        Sec. 2‑619.1. Combined motions. Motions with respect to pleadings under Section 2‑615, motions for involuntary dismissal or other relief under Section 2‑619, and motions for summary judgment under Section 2‑1005 may be filed together as a single motion in any combination. A combined motion, however, shall be in parts. Each part shall be limited to and shall specify that it is made under one of Sections 2‑615, 2‑619, or 2‑1005. Each part shall also clearly show the points or grounds relied upon under the Section upon which it is based.
    (Source: P.A. 86‑1156.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑620) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑620)
        Sec. 2‑620. Practice on motions. The form and contents of motions, notices regarding the same, hearings on motions, and all other matters of procedure relative thereto, shall be according to rules.
    (Source: P.A. 82‑280.)

        (735 ILCS 5/2‑621) (from Ch. 110, par. 2‑621)
        (Text of Section WITH the changes made by P.A. 89‑7, which has been held unconstitutional)
        Sec. 2‑621. Product liability actions.
        (a) In any product liability action based on any theory or doctrine commenced or maintained against a defendant or defendants other than the manufacturer, that party shall upon answering or otherwise pleading file an affidavit certifying the correct identity of the manufacturer of the product allegedly causing injury, death or damage. The commencement of a product liability action based on any theory or doctrine against such defendant or defendants shall toll the applicable statute of limitation and statute of repose relative to the defendant or defendants for purposes of asserting a strict liability in tort cause of action.
        (b) Once the plaintiff has filed a complaint against the manufacturer or manufacturers, and the manufacturer or manufacturers have or are required to have answered or otherwise pleaded, the court shall order the dismissal of a product liability action based on any theory or doctrine against the certifying defendant or defendants, provided the certifying defendant or defendants are not within the categories set forth in subsection (c) of this Section. Due diligence shall be exercised by the certifying defendant or defendants in providing the plaintiff with the correct identity of the manufacturer or manufacturers, and due diligence shall be exercised by the plaintiff in filing an action and obtaining jurisdiction over the manufacturer or manufacturers.
        The plaintiff may at any time subsequent to the dismissal move to vacate the order of dismissal and reinstate the certifying defendant or defendants, provided plaintiff can show one or more of the following:
            (1) That the applicable period of statute of
         limitation or statute of repose bars the assertion of a cause of action against the manufacturer or manufacturers of the product allegedly causing the injury, death or damage; or
            (2) That the identity of the manufacturer given to
         the plaintiff by the certifying defendant or defendants was incorrect. Once the correct identity of the manufacturer has been given by the certifying defendant or defendants the court shall again dismiss the certifying defendant or defendants; or
            (3) That the manufacturer no longer exists, cannot
         be subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State, or, despite due diligence, the manufacturer is not amenable to service of process; or
            (4) That the manufacturer is unable to satisfy any
         judgment as determined by the court; or
            (5) That the court determines that the manufacturer
         would be unable to satisfy a reasonable settlement or other agreement with plaintiff.
        (c) A court shall not enter a dismissal order relative to any certifying defendant or defendants other tha

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