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MICHIGAN STATUTES AND CODES

Section 722.27a - Parenting time.

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CHILD CUSTODY ACT OF 1970 (EXCERPT)Act 91 of 1970722.27a Parenting time.Sec. 7a.(1)Parenting time shall be granted in accordance with the best interests of the child. It is presumed to be in the best interests of a child for the child to have a strong relationship with both of his or her parents. Except as otherwise provided in this section, parenting time shall be granted to a parent in a frequency, duration, and type reasonably calculated to promote a strong relationship between the child and the parent granted parenting time.(2) If the parents of a child agree on parenting time terms, the court shall order the parenting time terms unless the court determines on the record by clear and convincing evidence that the parenting time terms are not in the best interests of the child.(3) A child has a right to parenting time with a parent unless it is shown on the record by clear and convincing evidence that it would endanger the child's physical, mental, or emotional health.(4) Notwithstanding other provisions of this act, if a proceeding regarding parenting time involves a child who is conceived as the result of acts for which 1 of the child's biological parents is convicted of criminal sexual conduct as provided in sections 520a to 520e and 520g of the Michigan penal code, Act No. 328 of the Public Acts of 1931, being sections 750.520a to 750.520e and 750.520g of the Michigan Compiled Laws, the court shall not grant parenting time to the convicted biological parent. This subsection does not apply to a conviction under section 520d(1)(a) of Act No. 328 of the Public Acts of 1931, being section 750.520d of the Michigan Compiled Laws. This subsection does not apply if, after the date of the conviction, the biological parents cohabit and establish a mutual custodial environment for the child.(5) Notwithstanding other provisions of this act, if an individual is convicted of criminal sexual conduct as provided in sections 520a to 520e and 520g of Act No. 328 of the Public Acts of 1931 and the victim is the individual's child, the court shall not grant parenting time with that child or a sibling of that child to that individual, unless both the child's other parent and, if the court considers the child or sibling to be of sufficient age to express his or her desires, the child or sibling consent to the parenting time.(6) The court may consider the following factors when determining the frequency, duration, and type of parenting time to be granted:(a) The existence of any special circumstances or needs of the child.(b) Whether the child is a nursing child less than 6 months of age, or less than 1 year of age if the child receives substantial nutrition through nursing. (c) The reasonable likelihood of abuse or neglect of the child during parenting time.(d) The reasonable likelihood of abuse of a parent resulting from the exercise of parenting time.(e) The inconvenience to, and burdensome impact or effect on, the child of traveling for purposes of parenting time.(f) Whether a parent can reasonably be expected to exercise parenting time in accordance with the court order.(g) Whether a parent has frequently failed to exercise reasonable parenting time.(h) The threatened or actual detention of the child with the intent to retain or conceal the child from the other parent or from a third person who has legal custody. A custodial parent's temporary residence with the child in a domestic violence shelter shall not be construed as evidence of the custodial parent's intent to retain or conceal the child from the other parent.(i) Any other relevant factors.(7) Parenting time shall be granted in specific terms if requested by either party at any time.(8) A parenting time order may contain any reasonable terms or conditions that facilitate the orderly and meaningful exercise of parenting time by a parent, including 1 or more of the following:(a) Division of the responsibility to transport the child.(b) Division of the cost of transporting the child.(c) Restrictions on the presence of third persons during parenting time.(d) Requirements that the child be ready for parenting time at a specific time.(e) Requirements that the parent arrive for parenting time and return the child from parenting time at specific times.(f) Requirements that parenting time occur in the presence of a third person or agency.(g) Requirements that a party post a bond to assure compliance with a parenting time order.(h) Requirements of reasonable notice when parenting time will not occur.(i) Any other reasonable condition determined to be appropriate in the particular case.(9) During the time a child is with a parent to whom parenting time has been awarded, that parent shall decide all routine matters concerning the child.(10) Prior to entry of a temporary order, a parent may seek an ex parte interim order concerning parenting time. If the court enters an ex parte interim order concerning parenting time, the party on whose motion the ex parte interim order is entered shall have a true copy of the order served on the friend of the court and the opposing party.(11) If the opposing party objects to the ex parte interim order, he or she shall file with the clerk of the court within 14 days after receiving notice of the order a written objection to, or a motion to modify or rescind, the ex parte interim order. The opposing party shall have a true copy of the written objection or motion served on the friend of the court and the party who obtained the ex parte interim order.(12) If the opposing party files a written objection to the ex parte interim order, the friend of the court shall attempt to resolve the dispute within 14 days after receiving it. If the matter cannot be resolved, the friend of the court shall provide the opposing party with a form motion and order with written instructions for their use in modifying or rescinding the ex parte order without assistance of counsel. If the opposing party wishes to proceed without assistance of counsel, the friend of the court shall schedule a hearing with the court that shall be held within 21 days after the filing of the motion. If the opposing party files a motion to modify or rescind the ex parte interim order and requests a hearing, the court shall resolve the dispute within 28 days after the hearing is requested.(13) An ex parte interim order issued under this section shall contain the following notice:NOTICE:1. You may file a written objection to this order or a motion to modify or rescind this order. You must file the written objection or motion with the clerk of the court within 14 days after you were served with this order. You must serve a true copy of the objection or motion on the friend of the court and the party who obtained the order.2. If you file a written objection, the friend of the court must try to resolve the dispute. If the friend of the court cannot resolve the dispute and if you wish to bring the matter before the court without the assistance of counsel, the friend of the court must provide you with form pleadings and written instructions and must schedule a hearing with the court.History: Add. 1988, Act 377, Eff. Mar. 30, 1989 ;-- Am. 1993, Act 259, Imd. Eff. Nov. 29, 1993 ;-- Am. 1996, Act 19, Eff. June 1, 1996 Compiler's Notes: Former MCL 722.27a, which pertained to action by parent of deceased father or mother for visitation of unmarried minor child, was repealed by Act 161 of 1980, Imd. Eff. June 18, 1980.
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  • CHILD CUSTODY ACT OF 1970 (EXCERPT)
    Act 91 of 1970

    722.27a Parenting time.

    Sec. 7a.

    (1) Parenting time shall be granted in accordance with the best interests of the child. It is presumed to be in the best interests of a child for the child to have a strong relationship with both of his or her parents. Except as otherwise provided in this section, parenting time shall be granted to a parent in a frequency, duration, and type reasonably calculated to promote a strong relationship between the child and the parent granted parenting time.

    (2) If the parents of a child agree on parenting time terms, the court shall order the parenting time terms unless the court determines on the record by clear and convincing evidence that the parenting time terms are not in the best interests of the child.

    (3) A child has a right to parenting time with a parent unless it is shown on the record by clear and convincing evidence that it would endanger the child's physical, mental, or emotional health.

    (4) Notwithstanding other provisions of this act, if a proceeding regarding parenting time involves a child who is conceived as the result of acts for which 1 of the child's biological parents is convicted of criminal sexual conduct as provided in sections 520a to 520e and 520g of the Michigan penal code, Act No. 328 of the Public Acts of 1931, being sections 750.520a to 750.520e and 750.520g of the Michigan Compiled Laws, the court shall not grant parenting time to the convicted biological parent. This subsection does not apply to a conviction under section 520d(1)(a) of Act No. 328 of the Public Acts of 1931, being section 750.520d of the Michigan Compiled Laws. This subsection does not apply if, after the date of the conviction, the biological parents cohabit and establish a mutual custodial environment for the child.

    (5) Notwithstanding other provisions of this act, if an individual is convicted of criminal sexual conduct as provided in sections 520a to 520e and 520g of Act No. 328 of the Public Acts of 1931 and the victim is the individual's child, the court shall not grant parenting time with that child or a sibling of that child to that individual, unless both the child's other parent and, if the court considers the child or sibling to be of sufficient age to express his or her desires, the child or sibling consent to the parenting time.

    (6) The court may consider the following factors when determining the frequency, duration, and type of parenting time to be granted:

    (a) The existence of any special circumstances or needs of the child.

    (b) Whether the child is a nursing child less than 6 months of age, or less than 1 year of age if the child receives substantial nutrition through nursing.

    (c) The reasonable likelihood of abuse or neglect of the child during parenting time.

    (d) The reasonable likelihood of abuse of a parent resulting from the exercise of parenting time.

    (e) The inconvenience to, and burdensome impact or effect on, the child of traveling for purposes of parenting time.

    (f) Whether a parent can reasonably be expected to exercise parenting time in accordance with the court order.

    (g) Whether a parent has frequently failed to exercise reasonable parenting time.

    (h) The threatened or actual detention of the child with the intent to retain or conceal the child from the other parent or from a third person who has legal custody. A custodial parent's temporary residence with the child in a domestic violence shelter shall not be construed as evidence of the custodial parent's intent to retain or conceal the child from the other parent.

    (i) Any other relevant factors.

    (7) Parenting time shall be granted in specific terms if requested by either party at any time.

    (8) A parenting time order may contain any reasonable terms or conditions that facilitate the orderly and meaningful exercise of parenting time by a parent, including 1 or more of the following:

    (a) Division of the responsibility to transport the child.

    (b) Division of the cost of transporting the child.

    (c) Restrictions on the presence of third persons during parenting time.

    (d) Requirements that the child be ready for parenting time at a specific time.

    (e) Requirements that the parent arrive for parenting time and return the child from parenting time at specific times.

    (f) Requirements that parenting time occur in the presence of a third person or agency.

    (g) Requirements that a party post a bond to assure compliance with a parenting time order.

    (h) Requirements of reasonable notice when parenting time will not occur.

    (i) Any other reasonable condition determined to be appropriate in the particular case.

    (9) During the time a child is with a parent to whom parenting time has been awarded, that parent shall decide all routine matters concerning the child.

    (10) Prior to entry of a temporary order, a parent may seek an ex parte interim order concerning parenting time. If the court enters an ex parte interim order concerning parenting time, the party on whose motion the ex parte interim order is entered shall have a true copy of the order served on the friend of the court and the opposing party.

    (11) If the opposing party objects to the ex parte interim order, he or she shall file with the clerk of the court within 14 days after receiving notice of the order a written objection to, or a motion to modify or rescind, the ex parte interim order. The opposing party shall have a true copy of the written objection or motion served on the friend of the court and the party who obtained the ex parte interim order.

    (12) If the opposing party files a written objection to the ex parte interim order, the friend of the court shall attempt to resolve the dispute within 14 days after receiving it. If the matter cannot be resolved, the friend of the court shall provide the opposing party with a form motion and order with written instructions for their use in modifying or rescinding the ex parte order without assistance of counsel. If the opposing party wishes to proceed without assistance of counsel, the friend of the court shall schedule a hearing with the court that shall be held within 21 days after the filing of the motion. If the opposing party files a motion to modify or rescind the ex parte interim order and requests a hearing, the court shall resolve the dispute within 28 days after the hearing is requested.

    (13) An ex parte interim order issued under this section shall contain the following notice: NOTICE:

    1. You may file a written objection to this order or a motion to modify or rescind this order. You must file the written objection or motion with the clerk of the court within 14 days after you were served with this order. You must serve a true copy of the objection or motion on the friend of the court and the party who obtained the order.

    2. If you file a written objection, the friend of the court must try to resolve the dispute. If the friend of the court cannot resolve the dispute and if you wish to bring the matter before the court without the assistance of counsel, the friend of the court must provide you with form pleadings and written instructions and must schedule a hearing with the court.


    History: Add. 1988, Act 377, Eff. Mar. 30, 1989 ;-- Am. 1993, Act 259, Imd. Eff. Nov. 29, 1993 ;-- Am. 1996, Act 19, Eff. June 1, 1996
    Compiler's Notes: Former MCL 722.27a, which pertained to action by parent of deceased father or mother for visitation of unmarried minor child, was repealed by Act 161 of 1980, Imd. Eff. June 18, 1980.

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