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Statutes > Texas > Property-code > Title-4-actions-and-remedies > Chapter-24-forcible-entry-and-detainer

PROPERTY CODE

TITLE 4. ACTIONS AND REMEDIES

CHAPTER 24. FORCIBLE ENTRY AND DETAINER

Sec. 24.001. FORCIBLE ENTRY AND DETAINER. (a) A person commits

a forcible entry and detainer if the person enters the real

property of another without legal authority or by force and

refuses to surrender possession on demand.

(b) For the purposes of this chapter, a forcible entry is:

(1) an entry without the consent of the person in actual

possession of the property;

(2) an entry without the consent of a tenant at will or by

sufferance; or

(3) an entry without the consent of a person who acquired

possession by forcible entry.

Acts 1983, 68th Leg., p. 3514, ch. 576, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1,

1984. Amended by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 688, Sec. 1, eff.

Sept. 1, 1989.

Sec. 24.002. FORCIBLE DETAINER. (a) A person who refuses to

surrender possession of real property on demand commits a

forcible detainer if the person:

(1) is a tenant or a subtenant wilfully and without force

holding over after the termination of the tenant’s right of

possession;

(2) is a tenant at will or by sufferance, including an occupant

at the time of foreclosure of a lien superior to the tenant’s

lease; or

(3) is a tenant of a person who acquired possession by forcible

entry.

(b) The demand for possession must be made in writing by a

person entitled to possession of the property and must comply

with the requirements for notice to vacate under Section 24.005.

Acts 1983, 68th Leg., p. 3514, ch. 576, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1,

1984. Amended by Acts 1985, 69th Leg., ch. 200, Sec. 1, eff. Aug.

26, 1985; Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 688, Sec. 2, eff. Sept. 1,

1989.

Sec. 24.003. SUBSTITUTION OF PARTIES. If a tenancy for a term

expires while the tenant’s suit for forcible entry is pending,

the landlord may prosecute the suit in the tenant’s name for the

landlord’s benefit and at the landlord’s expense. It is

immaterial whether the tenant received possession from the

landlord or became a tenant after obtaining possession of the

property.

Acts 1983, 68th Leg., p. 3515, ch. 576, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1,

1984. Amended by Acts 1985, 69th Leg., ch. 891, Sec. 1, eff. Aug.

26, 1985.

Sec. 24.004. JURISDICTION. A justice court in the precinct in

which the real property is located has jurisdiction in eviction

suits. Eviction suits include forcible entry and detainer and

forcible detainer suits.

Acts 1983, 68th Leg., p. 3515, ch. 576, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1,

1984. Amended by Acts 1985, 69th Leg., ch. 891, Sec. 1, eff. Aug.

26, 1985; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 1205, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1,

1997.

Sec. 24.005. NOTICE TO VACATE PRIOR TO FILING EVICTION SUIT.

(a) If the occupant is a tenant under a written lease or oral

rental agreement, the landlord must give a tenant who defaults or

holds over beyond the end of the rental term or renewal period at

least three days’ written notice to vacate the premises before

the landlord files a forcible detainer suit, unless the parties

have contracted for a shorter or longer notice period in a

written lease or agreement. A landlord who files a forcible

detainer suit on grounds that the tenant is holding over beyond

the end of the rental term or renewal period must also comply

with the tenancy termination requirements of Section 91.001.

(b) If the occupant is a tenant at will or by sufferance, the

landlord must give the tenant at least three days’ written notice

to vacate before the landlord files a forcible detainer suit

unless the parties have contracted for a shorter or longer notice

period in a written lease or agreement. If a building is

purchased at a tax foreclosure sale or a trustee’s foreclosure

sale under a lien superior to the tenant’s lease and the tenant

timely pays rent and is not otherwise in default under the

tenant’s lease after foreclosure, the purchaser must give a

residential tenant of the building at least 30 days’ written

notice to vacate if the purchaser chooses not to continue the

lease. The tenant is considered to timely pay the rent under this

subsection if, during the month of the foreclosure sale, the

tenant pays the rent for that month to the landlord before

receiving any notice that a foreclosure sale is scheduled during

the month or pays the rent for that month to the foreclosing

lienholder or the purchaser at foreclosure not later than the

fifth day after the date of receipt of a written notice of the

name and address of the purchaser that requests payment. Before a

foreclosure sale, a foreclosing lienholder may give written

notice to a tenant stating that a foreclosure notice has been

given to the landlord or owner of the property and specifying the

date of the foreclosure.

(c) If the occupant is a tenant of a person who acquired

possession by forcible entry, the landlord must give the person

at least three days’ written notice to vacate before the landlord

files a forcible detainer suit.

(d) In all situations in which the entry by the occupant was a

forcible entry under Section 24.001, the person entitled to

possession must give the occupant oral or written notice to

vacate before the landlord files a forcible entry and detainer

suit. The notice to vacate under this subsection may be to vacate

immediately or by a specified deadline.

(e) If the lease or applicable law requires the landlord to give

a tenant an opportunity to respond to a notice of proposed

eviction, a notice to vacate may not be given until the period

provided for the tenant to respond to the eviction notice has

expired.

(f) The notice to vacate shall be given in person or by mail at

the premises in question. Notice in person may be by personal

delivery to the tenant or any person residing at the premises who

is 16 years of age or older or personal delivery to the premises

and affixing the notice to the inside of the main entry door.

Notice by mail may be by regular mail, by registered mail, or by

certified mail, return receipt requested, to the premises in

question. If the dwelling has no mailbox and has a keyless

bolting device, alarm system, or dangerous animal that prevents

the landlord from entering the premises to leave the notice to

vacate on the inside of the main entry door, the landlord may

securely affix the notice on the outside of the main entry door.

(g) The notice period is calculated from the day on which the

notice is delivered.

(h) A notice to vacate shall be considered a demand for

possession for purposes of Subsection (b) of Section 24.002.

(i) If before the notice to vacate is given as required by this

section the landlord has given a written notice or reminder to

the tenant that rent is due and unpaid, the landlord may include

in the notice to vacate required by this section a demand that

the tenant pay the delinquent rent or vacate the premises by the

date and time stated in the notice.

Acts 1983, 68th Leg., p. 3515, ch. 576, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1,

1984. Amended by Acts 1985, 69th Leg., ch. 891, Sec. 1, eff.

Sept. 1, 1985; Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 688, Sec. 3, eff. Sept.

1, 1989; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 1205, Sec. 2, eff. Sept. 1,

1997.

Sec. 24.0051. PROCEDURES APPLICABLE IN SUIT TO EVICT AND RECOVER

UNPAID RENT. (a) In a suit filed in justice court in which the

landlord files a sworn statement seeking judgment against a

tenant for possession of the premises and unpaid rent, personal

service on the tenant or service on the tenant under Rule 742a,

Texas Rules of Civil Procedure, is procedurally sufficient to

support a default judgment for possession of the premises and

unpaid rent.

(b) A landlord may recover unpaid rent under this section

regardless of whether the tenant vacated the premises after the

date the landlord filed the sworn statement and before the date

the court renders judgment.

(c) In a suit to recover possession of the premises, whether or

not unpaid rent is claimed, the citation required by Rule 739,

Texas Rules of Civil Procedure, must include the following notice

to the defendant:

FAILURE TO APPEAR FOR TRIAL MAY RESULT IN A DEFAULT JUDGMENT

BEING ENTERED AGAINST YOU.

(d) In a suit described by Subsection (c), the citation required

by Rule 739, Texas Rules of Civil Procedure, must include the

following notice to the defendant on the first page of the

citation in English and Spanish and in conspicuous bold print:

SUIT TO EVICT

THIS SUIT TO EVICT INVOLVES IMMEDIATE DEADLINES. CALL THE STATE

BAR OF TEXAS TOLL-FREE AT 1-877-9TEXBAR IF YOU NEED HELP LOCATING

AN ATTORNEY. IF YOU CANNOT AFFORD TO HIRE AN ATTORNEY, YOU MAY

BE ELIGIBLE FOR FREE OR LOW-COST LEGAL ASSISTANCE.

Added by Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 1464, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1,

1999.

Amended by:

Acts 2005, 79th Leg., Ch.

712, Sec. 1, eff. September 1, 2005.

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch.

812, Sec. 1, eff. September 1, 2007.

Sec. 24.0052. TENANT APPEAL ON PAUPER’S AFFIDAVIT. (a) If a

tenant in a residential eviction suit is unable to pay the costs

of appeal or file an appeal bond as required by the Texas Rules

of Civil Procedure, the tenant may appeal the judgment of the

justice court by filing with the justice court, not later than

the fifth day after the date the judgment is signed, a pauper’s

affidavit sworn before the clerk of the justice court or a notary

public that states that the tenant is unable to pay the costs of

appeal or file an appeal bond. The affidavit must contain the

following information:

(1) the tenant’s identity;

(2) the nature and amount of the tenant’s employment income;

(3) the income of the tenant’s spouse, if applicable and

available to the tenant;

(4) the nature and amount of any governmental entitlement income

of the tenant;

(5) all other income of the tenant;

(6) the amount of available cash and funds available in savings

or checking accounts of the tenant;

(7) real and personal property owned by the tenant, other than

household furnishings, clothes, tools of a trade, or personal

effects;

(8) the tenant’s debts and monthly expenses; and

(9) the number and age of the tenant’s dependents and where

those dependents reside.

(b) The justice court shall make available an affidavit form

that a person may use to comply with the requirements of

Subsection (a).

(c) The justice court shall promptly notify the landlord if a

pauper’s affidavit is filed by the tenant.

(d) A landlord may contest a pauper’s affidavit on or before the

fifth day after the date the affidavit is filed. If the landlord

contests the affidavit, the justice court shall notify the

parties and hold a hearing to determine whether the tenant is

unable to pay the costs of appeal or file an appeal bond. The

hearing shall be held not later than the fifth day after the date

the landlord notifies the court clerk of the landlord’s contest.

At the hearing, the tenant has the burden to prove by competent

evidence, including documents or credible testimony of the tenant

or others, that the tenant is unable to pay the costs of appeal

or file an appeal bond.

(e) If the justice court approves the pauper’s affidavit of a

tenant, the tenant is not required to pay the county court filing

fee or file an additional affidavit in the county court under

Subsection (a).

Added by Acts 2005, 79th Leg., Ch.

1185, Sec. 1, eff. September 1, 2005.

Sec. 24.0053. PAYMENT OF RENT DURING APPEAL OF EVICTION. (a)

If the justice court enters judgment for the landlord in a

residential eviction case based on nonpayment of rent, the court

shall determine the amount of rent to be paid each rental pay

period during the pendency of any appeal and shall note that

amount in the judgment. If a portion of the rent is payable by a

government agency, the court shall determine and note in the

judgment the portion of the rent to be paid by the government

agency and the portion to be paid by the tenant. The court’s

determination shall be in accordance with the terms of the rental

agreement and applicable laws and regulations. This subsection

does not require or prohibit payment of rent into the court

registry or directly to the landlord during the pendency of an

appeal of an eviction case based on grounds other than nonpayment

of rent.

(b) If an eviction case is based on nonpayment of rent and the

tenant appeals by filing a pauper’s affidavit, the tenant shall

pay the rent, as it becomes due, into the justice court or the

county court registry, as applicable, during the pendency of the

appeal, in accordance with the Texas Rules of Civil Procedure and

Subsection (a). If a government agency is responsible for all or

a portion of the rent under an agreement with the landlord, the

tenant shall pay only that portion of the rent determined by the

justice court under Subsection (a) to be paid by the tenant

during appeal, subject to either party’s right to contest that

determination under Subsection (c).

(c) If an eviction case is based on nonpayment of rent and the

tenant’s rent during the rental agreement term has been paid

wholly or partly by a government agency, either party may contest

the portion of the rent that the justice court determines must be

paid into the county court registry by the tenant under this

section. The contest must be filed on or before the fifth day

after the date the justice signs the judgment. If a contest is

filed, not later than the fifth day after the date the contest is

filed the justice court shall notify the parties and hold a

hearing to determine the amount owed by the tenant in accordance

with the terms of the rental agreement and applicable laws and

regulations. After hearing the evidence, the justice court shall

determine the portion of the rent that must be paid by the tenant

under this section.

(d) If the tenant objects to the justice court’s ruling under

Subsection (c) on the portion of the rent to be paid by the

tenant during appeal, the tenant shall be required to pay only

the portion claimed by the tenant to be owed by the tenant until

the issue is tried de novo along with the case on the merits in

county court. During the pendency of the appeal, either party

may file a motion with the county court to reconsider the amount

of the rent that must be paid by the tenant into the registry of

the court.

(e) If either party files a contest under Subsection (c) and the

tenant files a pauper’s affidavit that is contested by the

landlord under Section 24.0052(d), the justice court shall hold

the hearing on both contests at the same time.

Added by Acts 2005, 79th Leg., Ch.

1185, Sec. 1, eff. September 1, 2005.

Sec. 24.0054. TENANT’S FAILURE TO PAY RENT DURING APPEAL. (a)

During an appeal of an eviction case for nonpayment of rent, if a

tenant fails to pay rent into the justice court or county court

registry in accordance with the Texas Rules of Civil Procedure

and Section 24.0053, the landlord may file with the county court

a sworn motion that the tenant failed to pay rent as required.

The landlord shall notify the tenant of the motion and the

hearing date.

(b) If the county court finds that the tenant has not complied

with the payment requirements of the Texas Rules of Civil

Procedure and Section 24.0053, the county court shall immediately

issue a writ of possession unless on or before the day of the

hearing the tenant pays into the court registry:

(1) all rent not paid in accordance with the Texas Rules of

Civil Procedure and Section 24.0053; and

(2) the landlord’s reasonable attorney’s fees, if any, in filing

the motion.

(c) If the court finds that a tenant has failed to timely pay

the rent into the court registry on more than one occasion:

(1) the tenant is not entitled to stay the issuance of the writ

by paying the rent and the landlord’s reasonable attorney’s fees,

if any; and

(2) the county court shall immediately issue a writ of

possession.

(d) A writ of possession issued under Subsection (c) may not be

executed before the sixth day after the date the writ is issued.

(e) In a motion or hearing in county court under Subsection (a),

the parties may represent themselves or be represented by their

authorized agents, who need not be attorneys.

(f) During the appeal of an eviction case, if a government

agency is responsible for payment of a portion of the rent and

does not pay that portion to the landlord or into the justice

court or county court registry, the landlord may file a motion

with the county court requesting that the tenant be required to

pay into the county court registry, as a condition of remaining

in possession, the full amount of each rental period’s rent, as

it becomes due under the rental agreement. After notice and

hearing, the court shall grant the motion if the landlord proves

by credible evidence that:

(1) a portion of the rent is owed by a government agency;

(2) the portion of the rent owed by the government agency is

unpaid;

(3) the landlord did not cause wholly or partly the agency to

cease making the payments;

(4) the landlord did not cause wholly or partly the agency to

pay the wrong amount; and

(5) the landlord is not able to take reasonable action that will

cause the agency to resume making the payments of its portion of

the total rent due under the rental agreement.

Added by Acts 2005, 79th Leg., Ch.

1185, Sec. 1, eff. September 1, 2005.

Sec. 24.006. ATTORNEY’S FEES AND COSTS OF SUIT. (a) Except as

provided by Subsection (b), to be eligible to recover attorney’s

fees in an eviction suit, a landlord must give a tenant who is

unlawfully retaining possession of the landlord’s premises a

written demand to vacate the premises. The demand must state that

if the tenant does not vacate the premises before the 11th day

after the date of receipt of the notice and if the landlord files

suit, the landlord may recover attorney’s fees. The demand must

be sent by registered mail or by certified mail, return receipt

requested, at least 10 days before the date the suit is filed.

(b) If the landlord provides the tenant notice under Subsection

(a) or if a written lease entitles the landlord to recover

attorney’s fees, a prevailing landlord is entitled to recover

reasonable attorney’s fees from the tenant.

(c) If the landlord provides the tenant notice under Subsection

(a) or if a written lease entitles the landlord or the tenant to

recover attorney’s fees, the prevailing tenant is entitled to

recover reasonable attorney’s fees from the landlord. A

prevailing tenant is not required to give notice in order to

recover attorney’s fees under this subsection.

(d) The prevailing party is entitled to recover all costs of

court.

Acts 1983, 68th Leg., p. 3516, ch. 576, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1,

1984. Amended by Acts 1985, 69th Leg., ch. 891, Sec. 1, eff.

Sept. 1, 1985; Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 688, Sec. 4, eff. Sept.

1, 1989; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 1205, Sec. 3, eff. Sept. 1,

1997.

Sec. 24.0061. WRIT OF POSSESSION. (a) A landlord who prevails

in an eviction suit is entitled to a judgment for possession of

the premises and a writ of possession. In this chapter,

“premises” means the unit that is occupied or rented and any

outside area or facility that the tenant is entitled to use under

a written lease or oral rental agreement, or that is held out for

the use of tenants generally.

(b) A writ of possession may not be issued before the sixth day

after the date on which the judgment for possession is rendered

unless a possession bond has been filed and approved under the

Texas Rules of Civil Procedure and judgment for possession is

thereafter granted by default.

(c) The court shall notify a tenant in writing of a default

judgment for possession by sending a copy of the judgment to the

premises by first class mail not later than 48 hours after the

entry of the judgment.

(d) The writ of possession shall order the officer executing the

writ to:

(1) post a written warning of at least 8-1/2 by 11 inches on the

exterior of the front door of the rental unit notifying the

tenant that the writ has been issued and that the writ will be

executed on or after a specific date and time stated in the

warning not sooner than 24 hours after the warning is posted; and

(2) when the writ is executed:

(A) deliver possession of the premises to the landlord;

(B) instruct the tenant and all persons claiming under the

tenant to leave the premises immediately, and, if the persons

fail to comply, physically remove them;

(C) instruct the tenant to remove or to allow the landlord, the

landlord’s representatives, or other persons acting under the

officer’s supervision to remove all personal property from the

rental unit other than personal property claimed to be owned by

the landlord; and

(D) place, or have an authorized person place, the removed

personal property outside the rental unit at a nearby location,

but not blocking a public sidewalk, passageway, or street and not

while it is raining, sleeting, or snowing.

(e) The writ of possession shall authorize the officer, at the

officer’s discretion, to engage the services of a bonded or

insured warehouseman to remove and store, subject to applicable

law, part or all of the property at no cost to the landlord or

the officer executing the writ.

(f) The officer may not require the landlord to store the

property.

(g) The writ of possession shall contain notice to the officer

that under Section 7.003, Civil Practice and Remedies Code, the

officer is not liable for damages resulting from the execution of

the writ if the officer executes the writ in good faith and with

reasonable diligence.

(h) A sheriff or constable may use reasonable force in executing

a writ under this section.

Added by Acts 1985, 69th Leg., ch. 319, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1,

1985. Amended by Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 314, Sec. 1, eff.

Sept. 1, 1987; Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 745, Sec. 6, eff. June

20, 1987; Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 1089, Sec. 1, eff. Aug. 31,

1987; Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 2, Sec. 13.01, eff. Aug. 28,

1989; Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 688, Sec. 5, eff. Sept. 1, 1989;

Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 1205, Sec. 4, eff. Sept. 1, 1997.

Sec. 24.0062. WAREHOUSEMAN’S LIEN. (a) If personal property is

removed from a tenant’s premises as the result of an action

brought under this chapter and stored in a bonded or insured

public warehouse, the warehouseman has a lien on the property to

the extent of any reasonable storage and moving charges incurred

by the warehouseman. The lien does not attach to any property

until the property has been stored by the warehouseman.

(b) If property is to be removed and stored in a public

warehouse under a writ of possession, the officer executing the

writ shall, at the time of execution, deliver in person to the

tenant, or by first class mail to the tenant’s last known address

not later than 72 hours after execution of the writ if the tenant

is not present, a written notice stating the complete address and

telephone number of the location at which the property may be

redeemed and stating that:

(1) the tenant’s property is to be removed and stored by a

public warehouseman under Section 24.0062 of the Property Code;

(2) the tenant may redeem any of the property, without payment

of moving or storage charges, on demand during the time the

warehouseman is removing the property from the tenant’s premises

and before the warehouseman permanently leaves the tenant’s

premises;

(3) within 30 days from the date of storage, the tenant may

redeem any of the property described by Section 24.0062(e),

Property Code, on demand by the tenant and on payment of the

moving and storage charges reasonably attributable to the items

being redeemed;

(4) after the 30-day period and before sale, the tenant may

redeem the property on demand by the tenant and on payment of all

moving and storage charges; and

(5) subject to the previously stated conditions, the

warehouseman has a lien on the property to secure payment of

moving and storage charges and may sell all the property to

satisfy reasonable moving and storage charges after 30 days,

subject to the requirements of Section 24.0062(j) of the Property

Code.

(c) The statement required by Subsection (b)(2) must be

underlined or in boldfaced print.

(d) On demand by the tenant during the time the warehouseman is

removing the property from the tenant’s premises and before the

warehouseman permanently leaves the tenant’s premises, the

warehouseman shall return to the tenant all property requested by

the tenant, without charge.

(e) On demand by the tenant within 30 days after the date the

property is stored by the warehouseman and on payment by the

tenant of the moving and storage charges reasonably attributable

to the items being redeemed, the warehouseman shall return to the

tenant at the warehouse the following property:

(1) wearing apparel;

(2) tools, apparatus, and books of a trade or profession;

(3) school books;

(4) a family library;

(5) family portraits and pictures;

(6) one couch, two living room chairs, and a dining table and

chairs;

(7) beds and bedding;

(8) kitchen furniture and utensils;

(9) food and foodstuffs;

(10) medicine and medical supplies;

(11) one automobile and one truck;

(12) agricultural implements;

(13) children’s toys not commonly used by adults;

(14) goods that the warehouseman or the warehouseman’s agent

knows are owned by a person other than the tenant or an occupant

of the residence;

(15) goods that the warehouseman or the warehouseman’s agent

knows are subject to a recorded chattel mortgage or financing

agreement; and

(16) cash.

(f) During the first 30 days after the date of storage, the

warehouseman may not require payment of removal or storage

charges for other items as a condition for redeeming the items

described by Subsection (e).

(g) On demand by the tenant to the warehouseman after the 30-day

period and before sale and on payment by the tenant of all unpaid

moving and storage charges on all the property, the warehouseman

shall return all the previously unredeemed property to the tenant

at the warehouse.

(h) A warehouseman may not recover any moving or storage charges

if the court determines under Subsection (i) that the

warehouseman’s moving or storage charges are not reasonable.

(i) Before the sale of the property by the warehouseman, the

tenant may file suit in the justice court in which the eviction

judgment was rendered, or in another court of competent

jurisdiction in the county in which the rental premises are

located, to recover the property described by Subsection (e) on

the ground that the landlord failed to return the property after

timely demand and payment by the tenant, as provided by this

section. Before sale, the tenant may also file suit to recover

all property moved or stored by the warehouseman on the ground

that the amount of the warehouseman’s moving or storage charges

is not reasonable. All proceedings under this subsection have

precedence over other matters on the court’s docket. The justice

court that issued the writ of possession has jurisdiction under

this section regardless of the amount in controversy.

(j) Any sale of property that is subject to a lien under this

section shall be conducted in accordance with Section 7.210 and

Subchapters D and F, Chapter 9, Business & Commerce Code.

(k) In a proceeding under this section, the prevailing party is

entitled to recover actual damages, reasonable attorney’s fees,

court costs, and, if appropriate, any property withheld in

violation of this section or the value of that property if it has

been sold.

Added by Acts 1985, 69th Leg., ch. 747, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1,

1985. Renumbered from Sec. 24.009 and amended by Acts 1987, 70th

Leg., ch. 314, Sec. 2, eff. Sept. 1, 1987; Acts 1987, 70th Leg.,

ch. 745, Sec. 7, eff. June 20, 1987; Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch.

48, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1993; Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 414,

Sec. 2.35, eff. July 1, 2001.

Sec. 24.007. APPEAL. A final judgment of a county court in an

eviction suit may not be appealed on the issue of possession

unless the premises in question are being used for residential

purposes only. A judgment of a county court may not under any

circumstances be stayed pending appeal unless, within 10 days of

the signing of the judgment, the appellant files a supersedeas

bond in an amount set by the county court. In setting the

supersedeas bond the county court shall provide protection for

the appellee to the same extent as in any other appeal, taking

into consideration the value of rents likely to accrue during

appeal, damages which may occur as a result of the stay during

appeal, and other damages or amounts as the court may deem

appropriate.

Acts 1983, 68th Leg., p. 3516, ch. 576, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1,

1984. Amended by Acts 1985, 69th Leg., ch. 891, Sec. 1, eff.

Sept. 1, 1985; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 1205, Sec. 5, eff. Sept.

1, 1997.

Sec. 24.008. EFFECT ON OTHER ACTIONS. An eviction suit does not

bar a suit for trespass, damages, waste, rent, or mesne profits.

Acts 1983, 68th Leg., p. 3516, ch. 576, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1,

1984. Amended by Acts 1985, 69th Leg., ch. 891, Sec. 1, eff. Aug.

26, 1985; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 1205, Sec. 6, eff. Sept. 1,

1997.

Sec. 24.011. NONLAWYER REPRESENTATION. In eviction suits in

justice court for nonpayment of rent or holding over beyond a

rental term, the parties may represent themselves or be

represented by their authorized agents, who need not be

attorneys. In any eviction suit in justice court, an authorized

agent requesting or obtaining a default judgment need not be an

attorney.

Added by Acts 1985, 69th Leg., ch. 891, Sec. 1, eff. Aug. 26,

1985. Renumbered from Sec. 24.009 by Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch.

167, Sec. 5.01(a)(49), eff. Sept. 1, 1987. Amended by Acts 1997,

75th Leg., ch. 1205, Sec. 7, eff. Sept. 1, 1997.